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Chapter 14: Gender and Development. Module 14.1 Gender Stereotypes Module 14.2 Differences Related to Gender Module 14.3 Gender Identity Module 14.4 Gender Roles in Transition. Children and Their Development, 3/e by Robert Kail. 14.1 Gender Stereotypes. How Do We View Men and Women?

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Chapter 14: Gender and Development

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Chapter 14 gender and development

Chapter 14: Gender and Development

Module 14.1 Gender Stereotypes

Module 14.2 Differences Related to Gender

Module 14.3 Gender Identity

Module 14.4 Gender Roles in Transition

Children and Their Development, 3/e by Robert Kail


Chapter 14 gender and development

14.1 Gender Stereotypes

How Do We View Men and Women?

Learning Gender Stereotypes


Chapter 14 gender and development

Social Role: cultural guidelines for how a person should behave

Gender Roles: behaviors considered appropriate for males and females

Gender Identity: perception of oneself as male or female

In the US, males are seen as instrumental, women as expressive

Not shared worldwide: US views on gender are extreme

14.1 How Do We View Men and Women?


Cultural differences in gender stereotypes

Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotypes

14.1: How Do We View Men and Women?


Chapter 14 gender and development

By age 5, US children judge 1/3 of traits as stereotypically as adults do

During elementary-school years, children learn that traits and occupations associated with males have higher status

Older children see stereotypes as general guidelines that are not necessarily binding

Girls tend to be more flexible about stereotypes

African American children have more flexible ideas about gender

14.1 Learning Gender Stereotypes


Chapter 14 gender and development

14.2 Differences Related to Gender

Differences in Physical Development and Behavior

Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement

Differences in Personality and Social Behavior

Frank Talk about Gender Differences


Chapter 14 gender and development

Obvious differences in primary & secondary sexual characteristics

Boys are bigger, stronger, faster, and more active

Girls are healthier and better on tasks requiring fine-motor coordination

14.2 Differences in Physical Development and Behavior


Gender differences in physical ability

Gender Differences in Physical Ability

14.2: Differences in Physical Development and Behavior


Chapter 14 gender and development

Verbal ability--girls excel at reading, spelling, & writing and are less likely to have language-related difficulties

Spatial ability--boys surpass girls at mental rotation and determining relations between objects in space

Math--girls often get better grades and are better at computational skills, but boys excel in math problem solving

14.2 Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement


Test of mental rotation

Test of Mental Rotation

14.2: Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement


Test of spatial relations

Test of Spatial Relations

14.2: Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement


Chapter 14 gender and development

Aggression: boys are more likely to be physically aggressive and girls more likely to be relationally aggressive

Emotional sensitivity: girls are better able to express emotions and interpret others’ emotions

Social influence: girls are more compliant and girls and women are more likely to be influenced by persuasive messages and group pressure, may come from females valuing group harmony

Depression: adolescent girls more likely to be depressed

14.2 Differences in Personality and Social Behavior


Gender differences in aggression

Gender Differences in Aggression

14.2: Differences in Personality and Social Behavior


Chapter 14 gender and development

Gender differences represent differences in average scores for groups of males and females

Distributions of scores have considerable overlap

Many abilities and behaviors don’t show any gender differences

14.2 Frank Talk About Gender Differences


Hypothetical gender difference

Hypothetical Gender Difference

14.2: Frank Talk About Gender Differences


Chapter 14 gender and development

14.3 Gender Identity

The Socializing Influences of People and the Media

Cognitive Theories of Gender Identity

Biological Influences


Chapter 14 gender and development

Parents treat sons and daughters alike except for gender-related behavior

Fathers more likely to treat sons and daughters differently

Teachers make gender salient and spend more time interacting with boys

Peers critical of cross-gender play

Same-sex play is universal

TV depicts stereotyped views of gender

14.3 The Socializing Influences of People and the Media


Chapter 14 gender and development

Gender identity develops gradually: gender labeling, stability, consistency, and constancy

By 4 years, children understand gender constancy and knew gender-typical and gender-atypical activities

According to gender-schema theory, once children learn their gender, they pay more attention to objects and activities that are gender appropriate

14.3 Cognitive Theories of Gender Identity


Chapter 14 gender and development

Evolutionary adaptation to male and female roles may influence gender differences

Girls who are affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to large amounts of androgen during prenatal development

During childhood and adolescence, girls with CAH prefer masculine activities and male play mates

14.3 Biological Influences


Chapter 14 gender and development

14.4 Gender Roles in Transition

Emerging Gender Roles

Beyond Traditional Gender Roles


Chapter 14 gender and development

Androgynous people are high in both expressive and instrumental traits

Being androgynous benefits girls’ self-esteem more than boys’

A balance of instrumentality and expressiveness may be especially adaptive

14.4 Emerging Gender Roles


Chapter 14 gender and development

Children can be taught to have fewer stereotyped views of occupations and household activities in the short-term

Family Lifestyles Project shows that some aspects of gender learning are more easily influenced than others.

Treat children as individuals, not based on gender when buying toys, choosing activities, and assigning chores

14.4 Beyond Traditional Gender Roles


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