Effective teachers professional skills and abilities chapter 12
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Effective Teachers: Professional Skills and Abilities Chapter 12. Effective Teachers. Focus and Engage Students’ Attention Use Instructional Time Efficiently Conduct Interactive Instruction. Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention. Establishing set Using variety.

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Effective teachers
Effective Teachers

  • Focus and Engage Students’ Attention

  • Use Instructional Time Efficiently

  • Conduct Interactive Instruction


Focusing and engaging students attention
Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention

  • Establishing set

  • Using variety


Focusing and engaging students attention1
Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention

  • Establishing set (providing a context for the lesson and the instruction)

    • Set induction

    • Orientation set

    • Evaluative set


Beginning the lesson
Beginning the Lesson

4 Goals of Establishing

an Effective Set


4 goals
4 Goals

  • Introduce topic in a way that makes it novel, interesting or relevant

  • Establish an interactive climate and tone

  • Direct learners’ attention to important aspects of the content or communicate objectives

  • Link lesson with what students already know


Using variety
Using Variety

  • Instructional Activities and Materials

  • Interacting with Students

  • Interfacing with Students


Using instructional time efficiently
Using Instructional Time Efficiently

  • Optimizing time

  • Maintaining momentum

  • Making smooth transitions


Using instructional time efficiently1
Using Instructional Time Efficiently

  • Optimizing time

    • Time on task

    • Mandated time

    • Allocated time

    • Academic instruction time

    • Academic learning time


Academic learning time
Academic Learning Time

  • “Engaged time”

  • Two factors are considered

    • Amount of time a given student is actively engaged in the instruction/learning process

    • Student’s success at the activity


Improving use of time
Improving Use of Time

  • Use all time available for instruction rather than other tasks

  • Begin and end on time

  • Have materials, equipment, and activities planned & ready

  • Enforce rules requiring students to be on time and prepared


Improving use of time cont
Improving Use of Time cont.

  • Monitor

  • Plan more than needed

  • Establish signals for the end of the lesson

  • Establish routines

  • Give directions clearly


Conducting interactive instruction
Conducting Interactive Instruction

How to Ask Questions

  • Require students to process and compose

  • Avoid rhetorical questions

  • Ask only one question at a time

  • Consider the type of question or level of thought required of students

    • Divergent/convergent

    • Content/process


Obtaining good answers
Obtaining Good Answers

  • Wait time

    • Pause between the teacher’s question and the student’s response

    • Pause between the student’s response and the teacher’s reaction

  • Ensure equal distribution of answers

  • Probing

  • Redirecting

  • Rephrasing


Providing clear instruction
Providing Clear Instruction

  • Clear teachers emphasize important points by:

    • Repeating them

    • Writing them on the board

    • Pausing after stating them

    • Reviewing them


Instructional clarity
Instructional Clarity

  • Preparing and entering the lesson

  • Introducing and emphasizing content

  • Elaborating on important ideas or concepts

  • Monitoring students’ understanding and remediating when students fail to understand


Monitoring students progress
Monitoring Students’ Progress

  • Monitoring can be:

    • Formal

    • Informal


Improving monitoring
Improving Monitoring

  • Moving around the room

  • Maximizing interactive, whole-group interaction

  • Using good questioning techniques

    • Calling on all students

    • Spending little time at your desk

      or with one student


Providing feedback and reinforcement
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement

  • Effective feedback includes:

    • The criteria used to evaluate performance

    • How the student’s performance relates to the standard


Providing feedback and reinforcement1
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement

  • More effective feedback

    • Provide as frequently as possible

    • Provide as soon after performance as possible

    • Make as specific as possible


Providing feedback and reinforcement cont
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement cont.

  • Focus on the quality of the performance rather than intentions or motivations

  • Allow students to assume responsibility for assessing their own progress


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