Cortical fine timing and behavior
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Cortical Fine Timing and Behavior. Yang Yan g Program in Neuroscience, Stony Brook University Zador Lab, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Sloan-Swartz Meeting 2010, Yale. Precise stimulus timing can guide behavior. interaural time difference. ∆t ≈ 10 µs. N ot Cortical. 300. 200.

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Cortical Fine Timing and Behavior

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Cortical Fine Timingand Behavior

Yang Yang

Program in Neuroscience,Stony Brook University

Zador Lab, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Sloan-Swartz Meeting 2010, Yale


Precise stimulus timing can guide behavior

interaural time difference

∆t ≈ 10 µs

Not Cortical


300

200

Neurons in Auditory Cortex can fire precisely in response to sound

rat

monkey

Hromadka, Deweese & Zador, 2008

Barbour &Wang, 2003


Cortical fine timing and behavior

  • Precise stimulus timing can drive behavior

    • Not cortical

  • Sensory stimuli can elicit precisely timed spikes in cortex

    • behaviorally relevant?

  • Can precise cortical spike timing drive behavior?

  • Hard-wired or use-dependent?


Using artificially induced, precisely timed cortical spikes to drive behavior

Behavioral paradigm: 2-Alternative Forced Choice task.

Dt = 0  LEFT

Dt > 0  RIGHT


2-Alternative Choice Task


Using artificially induced, precisely timed cortical spikes to drive behavior

Behavioral paradigm: 2-Alternative Forced Choice task.

Implant 2 electrodes (A & B, 1.1mm apart) chronically into left auditory cortex,directly stimulate A and B

Task: simultaneous A&B vs. B-∆t-A

Dt = 0  LEFT

Dt > 0  RIGHT


Inter-stimulus Interval (ms)

Spike timing of 3 msin auditory cortex can drive behavior!

Yang, DeWeese, Otazu, Zador, Nat. Neurosci, 2008


22/24

11/13

6/8

5/7

10/15

1.0

2/7

0.8

Fraction of rats

able to perform above chance

0.6

0.4

0/4

0.2

0

100

35

15

7

5

3

1

Inter-stimulus interval (ms)

Spike timing of 3 msin auditory cortex can drive behavior

Population summary


Spike timing of 3 msin auditory cortex can drive behavior

Is auditory cortex unique?


YES: Auditory cortex is different from visual cortex

Audition

Vision

Sunrise, Monet

slow

fast


Physiology

A1

brainmaps.org

Hromadka et. al,2005

V1

A1

MT

Douglas & Martin, 2004

Buracas et. al, 1998

NO: auditory cortex and visual cortex are similar

Canonical Circuit


What about visual cortex?

Your guess?


Limit in V1 is 15 ms

visual cortex stimulation

4/4

5/5

7/10

2/6

0/7


22/24

11/13

6/8

5/7

10/15

1.0

2/7

0.8

Fraction of rats

able to perform above chance

0.6

0.4

0/4

0.2

0

100

35

15

7

5

3

1

Inter-stimulus interval (ms)

Visual Cortex is slower than Auditory Cortex

Auditory cortex stimulation

visual cortex stimulation

4/4

5/5

7/10

2/6

0/7

**

--- A1

--- V1

*

Threshold:

Auditory cortex: 1-3 ms

Visual cortex: 5-15ms

**

*: p<0.05

**: p<0.005


Barrel cortex neurons can respond precisely to a whisker stimulation

Arabzadeh E. et. al, 2003

How about barrel cortex?


6/6

6/6

6/6

4/6

--- S1

--- A1

--- V1

*

*

*

0/6

Limit in barrel cortexis 1 ms !


Different cortical areas are different in fine timing discrimination

  • Thresholds:

    • Barrel Cortex: 1ms

    • Auditory Cortex: 3ms

    • Visual Cortex: 15ms


Audition

Vision

Whiskers!

Sunrise, Monet

faster

slow

fast

Hard-wired or use-dependent?


anatomy

physiology

imaging

Fox 1992

Holtmaat & Svoboda, 2009

Glazewski & Fox 1996

Whisker trimming during development changes properties of barrel cortex


  • Experimental group

.

.

.

.

.

.

P0

P60

  • Control group: non-deprived

P0

P60

  • Control group: ipsilateral

P0

P60

Sensory Deprivation


Performance is impaired for sensory deprived animals

  • Median performance for each rat on each Inter-stim-inteval.

Barrel control

Barrel deprived

p<0.05:

3,5,15,35,100 (ms)


Comparing all experimental groups

  • Median performance for each rat on each Inter-stim-inteval.

    Error bar: median absolute deviation from the median

--- Barrel

--- Auditory

--- Visual

--- Deprived


Performance improved for sensory deprived animals with training

y=0.5+(k-0.5)*(1-exp(-t/tau))

k: asymptotic performance, tau: time constant


Tau is bigger for deprived animals than for control animals

p=0.0013


Conclusions

  • The ability to exploit timing information behaviorally is use-dependent

    • Sensory deprived animals were severely impaired in cortical timing discrimination, suggesting that sensory input during development is essential in establishing the ability of fine timing discrimination in the cortex

    • Sensory deprived animals showed more improvement with training than the control animals, suggesting that sensory deprived animals could learn to use the cortical timing cue with direct cortical stimulation input


Future directions…


Many thanks to…

  • Tony Zador

  • Mike DeWeese

  • Gonzalo Otazu

  • Past and present Zadorians

  • My dear rats yy001-yy293


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