Bacteria
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Bacteria. Characteristics of Bacteria. Bacteria – microscopic prokaryotes (unicellular no nucleus) - live everywhere (living and dead) - outnumber cells on your body 10 to 1 Archaea – microscopic prokaryote - live in extreme environments (warm no O 2 )

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Bacteria

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Bacteria

Bacteria


Characteristics of bacteria

Characteristics of Bacteria

  • Bacteria – microscopic prokaryotes (unicellular no nucleus)

    - live everywhere (living and dead)

    - outnumber cells on your body 10 to 1

  • Archaea – microscopic prokaryote

    - live in extreme environments (warm no O2)

    - ribosomes resemble that of eukaryotes

    - contain molecules in plasma

    membrane found in no other organism


Structure of bacteria

Structure of Bacteria

  • Consist of

    • Cell Wall – Can have a thick capsule surrounding it preventing

      antibiotics from killing it (pneumonia)

      - pili surrounding it allow the bacterium to stick to surfaces

    • Cell Membrane

    • Cytoplasm – contains ribosomes

    • DNA – one coiled circular chromosome

  • Size

    • 1 – 5 μm (100 fit across the top of a pin head)

  • Shape

    • Round

    • Rod

    • Spiral


Obtaining food and energy

Obtaining Food and Energy

  • Various ways due to living area

    • Dead organisms or organic waste

      • Take in and break down

    • Living hosts

      • Bacteria that causes tooth decay (live on plaque and feed on sugars)

    • Aerobic – oxygen needed

    • Anaerobic – oxygen NOT needed


Movement

Movement

  • Flagella – long whip-like structures used for movement

  • Twist movement

  • Spiral movement

  • Pili – sticky structures


Reproduction

Reproduction

  • Asexual – one parent

    • Fission – cell division forming two identical cells

      - NO genetic variation

    • Conjugation – two bacteria of the same species

      attach to each other and combine

      their genetic material

      - two still remain (no new organisms

      are produced)

      - DNA is different – Genetic Variation


Survival tactics

Survival Tactics

  • Endospores – a bacterium builds a thick internal

    wall around its chromosome and

    part of the cytoplasm

    - protects the bacterium form

    * heat

    * cold

    * drought

    - remain dormant for months to

    centuries


Lesson review

Lesson Review

Pg. 236

# ‘s 1 - 11


Viruses

Viruses


Characteristics of viruses

Characteristics of Viruses

  • Virus – a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a

    layer of protein that can infect and

    replicate in a host cell.

  • Consist of

    • NO NUCLEUS

    • NO CELL WALL

    • NO ORGANELLES

  • Size

    • Smaller than bacteria

  • Shape

    • Cylinder

    • Crystal

    • Sphere

    • Bacteriophage


Dead or alive

Dead or Alive

  • Have Life

    • Organization

    • Response to stimuli

    • Reproduction

    • Use energy

    • Grow

  • Virus – None of the above characteristics

    - not alive


Host cell

Host Cell

  • Host Cell

    • Used to replicate virus DNA

    • Viruses inside a host cell

      • Active – replication occurs instantly

      • Latent – dormant


Replication

Replication

Fig 13 pg. 248 - 249


Mutations

Mutations

  • Mutations

    • Virus - adjust changes to host cell.

    • Host cell – changes to prevent virus attachment


Viral diseases

Viral Diseases

  • Chicken pox

  • Influenza

  • Pneumonia

  • Symptoms

    • Runny nose

    • Scratchy throat

  • NO SYMPTOMSHIV


Immunity

Immunity

  • Immunity – free from disease

    • Antibodies – protiens that attach to pathogens and

      make them useless

    • Aquired immunity – after having the illness

    • Natural immunity – passed from mother to child

    • Two actions are taken

      • Prevention from attachment

      • Attach and destroy virus


Vaccines

Vaccines

  • Vaccine – contains one or more deactivated pathogens

    • Triggers production of antibodies

    • Mild symptoms


Good use for viruses

Good Use for Viruses

  • Treat genetic disorders

    • Gene transfer – inject normal genes into mutated ones.


Lesson review1

Lesson Review

Pg. 253

# ‘s 1 - 11


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