The nature of matter
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The Nature of Matter. The chemistry of life. The Nature of Matter. Life depends on chemistry Living things are made from chemical compounds The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom. Atoms. From the Greek word atomos , which means “unable to be cut”

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The chemistry of life

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The nature of matter

The Nature of Matter

The chemistry of life


The nature of matter1

The Nature of Matter

  • Life depends on chemistry

  • Living things are made from chemical compounds

  • The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom


Atoms

Atoms

  • From the Greek word atomos, which means “unable to be cut”

  • Atoms are incredibly small

    • Place side by side, 100million atoms would make a row only about 1 centimeter long

      An atom contains subatomic particles that are even smaller


Subatomic particles

Subatomic Particles

  • The subatomic particles that makes up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons

  • Protons are positively charged

  • Neutrons carry no charge

  • Electron is negatively charged


Atom model 1

Atom model 1


Atom model 2

Atom model 2


Atoms1

Atoms

  • Atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons


Elements

Elements

  • A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom

  • More than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms

  • Elements are represented by a one- or two letter symbol

  • The Periodic Table shows the elements


Chemical compounds

Chemical Compounds

  • In nature, more elements are found combined with other elements in compounds

  • A chemical compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

  • The atoms in compounds are held together by chemical bonds


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

  • Bond formation involves the electros that surround each atomic nucleus

  • The electrons that are available to form bonds are called valence electrons


Types of chemical bonds

Types of Chemical Bonds

  • Ionic bonds

  • Covalent bonds

  • Van deer Waals forces

    • The main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds


Ionic bonds

Ionic bonds

  • An ionic bond is formed when or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another


Ionic bonds1

Ionic Bonds


Covalent bonds

Covalent Bonds

  • A covalent bond forms when electrons are shared between atoms (single, double, and triple bonds)

    • The structure that result when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule


Covalent bound

Covalent bound


Molecules

Molecules

  • The molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds.

  • Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as macromolecules


Macromolecules

Macromolecules

  • They are formed by a process in which smaller molecules are put together (polymerization)

    • Monomers join together to form polymers


Types of macromolecules

Types of Macromolecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Nucleic acids

  • Proteins


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy.

    • Sugars

      • Starch

      • glucose


Lipids

Lipids

  • Lipids can be used to store energy

  • Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes.

    • Fat

    • Olive oil


Nucleic acid

Nucleic Acid

  • Nucleic acids store and transmit heredity, or genetic information

    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

    • RNA (Ribonucleic acid)


Proteins

Proteins

  • Some proteins control the rate of chemical reactions and regulate cell process

  • Some are used to form bones and muscles

  • Others transport substances into and out of cells or help fight disease.

    • Enzymes


Factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions

Factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions

  • Temperature

  • pH


Chemical reactions

Chemical reactions

  • chemical reaction is a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another.

  • Chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds


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