Memory
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 44

Memory PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 110 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Memory. Homework please!. Lesson 4 – Core Study. BATs Explain the serial position effect (C/D) Describe Terry’s experiment in the recall of TV commercials (D) Outline the limitations of Terry’s study (B).

Download Presentation

Memory

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Memory

Memory


Lesson 4 core study

Homework please!

Lesson 4 – Core Study

BATs

  • Explain the serial position effect (C/D)

  • Describe Terry’s experiment in the recall of TV commercials (D)

  • Outline the limitations of Terry’s study (B)

Homework – Answer questions Activity 2.9 p 27 (qu3 – say who the sample was not the number) . Finish activity 2.10 - Try out experiment on people and record results in a line graph like the one on p26.


Levels of processing experiment homework

Levels of Processing experiment homework

  • Share your results with your partners

  • Did you get similar results?

  • Did they match those of Craik and Lockhart?


A memory experiment

A Memory Experiment

  • Shortly, you will be shown a series of items.

  • Watch carefully, as you will be asked to recall as many of them as you can at the end of the presentation.

  • You can write which items you remember on a piece of paper, but should not write anything as you go along.

  • When you come to recall the items, you can write them down in any order that you want.


Memory

  • Remember to watch carefully!

  • When you are ready, the presentation will begin…


Memory

End of

Presentation


Memory

  • What can you remember?


Memory

  • People tend to remember the first few items in a list.

  • This is known as the primacy effect.


Memory

  • People tend to remember the last few items in a list.

  • This is known as the recency effect.


Memory

  • People tend not to remember the items that occur in the middle of a list.

  • These findings are also described as the serial position effect. In other words, the serial position of an item in a list (e.g. whether its 1st, 2nd, 3rd, last, etc) affects the chance of it being remembered.


A graph to demonstrate the serial position effect

A graph to demonstrate the serial position effect

recency effect

primacy effect


Memory

  • Fill in the definitions of primacy and recency effect in your glossary

  • Look back at the Multi Store Model of memory. In pairs discuss …

  • How does the MSM help to explain the serial position effect? (B/C)


Question why does the primacy effect happen

Question: Why does the primacy effect happen?

Answer: Because the first few items are ________ and _______ to ____ _____ memory. This means they are _______ for recall at the end of the presentation.


Question why does the primacy effect happen1

Question: Why does the primacy effect happen?

Answer: Because the first few items are rehearsed and transfer to long term memory. This means they are available for recall at the end of the presentation.


Question why does the recency effect happen

Question: Why does the recency effect happen?

Answer: Because the last few items are still in _____ ____ memory and have not yet _______. This is why people often try to remember them first, otherwise they will be lost.


Question why does the recency effect happen1

Question: Why does the recency effect happen?

Answer: Because the last few items are still in short term memory and have not yet decayed. This is why people often try to remember them first, otherwise they will be lost.


Question why are items in the middle of a list often forgotten

Question: Why are items in the middle of a list often forgotten?

Answer:

  • Because people are busy rehearsing the first few items they cannot give enough _________ to the middle items.

  • Because by the time people reach the end of the list the middle items have _______.

  • Because the middle items have also been __________ by the later items that have come into ______ _____ memory.


Question why are items in the middle of a list often forgotten1

Question: Why are items in the middle of a list often forgotten?

Answer:

  • Because people are busy rehearsing the first few items they cannot give enough attention to the middle items.

  • Because by the time people reach the end of the list the middle items have decayed.

  • Because the middle items have also been displaced by the later items that have come into short term memory.


Memory

Question: What would happen if you were shown a series of items but were not allowed to recall them straight away? Instead, you had to count backwards for 30 seconds (a distracter task). How many of the pictures can you remember now?

Answer:

  • You would tend to remember the first few items still because they get rehearsed into long term memory.

  • However, the ‘distracter’ task would stop you from recalling items from short term memory. You would ‘lose’ the recency effect.

  • The task would probably displace any items left in the STM. Even if it didn’t, all items should have decayed by the end of the task.


Core study in memory

Core StudyIn Memory

Terry (2005)

“Serial Position Effects in

Recall of Television

Commercials”


Memory

Aim

Terry’s aim was to show that the serial position effect occurs when people are presented with a series of television commercials.


Hypothesis

Hypothesis

  • (i) He predicted that if he showed participants a block of television commercials then, on average, the earlier and later ones would be recalled more than the middle ones.

  • (ii) He also predicted that if he delayed recall of the commercials, only the earlier ones would be recalled well.


Method

Method

  • Terry used an experiment, with a repeated measures design. Participants were shown a block of commercials in both conditions.

  • In Condition 1, they were asked to recall the products they had seen (in any order they wanted) immediately after presentation.

  • In Condition 2, they were asked to recall the products they had seen (in any order they wanted) after a delay of 3 mins (where they did a written task).


Method1

Method

  • There were 15 commercials in a block.

  • All commercials were 15 or 30 seconds in length.

  • Commercials were 10 months old on average.

  • Commercials were presented in a different order depending on participant.


Results

immediate recall

Recall

delayed recall

Serial Position of Television Commercial

Results


Results1

Results

  • As the graph shows, when participants were able to recall the television commercials immediately there was a primacy effect and a recency effect.

  • However, when participants’ recall was delayed there was a primacy effect but no recency effect.


Conclusion

Conclusion

The first few commercials were well remembered in both conditions because participants had the time and capacity to rehearse them, and store them in long term memory.


Conclusion1

Conclusion

  • The last few commercials were remembered well in the ‘immediate’ condition because they were still held in short-term memory.

  • The last few items were remembered poorly in the ‘delayed’ condition because they had been displaced by the distracter task and/or had decayed over the duration of the task.


Fill in the summary sheet for terry s experiment

Fill in the summary sheet for Terry’s experiment


Evaluation

Add these evaluation points to the sheet

Evaluation

  • The experiment took place in a laboratory using an artificial task…so findings may lack ecological validity.

  • The experiment only measured memory through recall of television commercials…so had low construct validity (did not reflect how we remember in other situations).

  • Participants may have deduced the aim of the study…and responded to demand characteristics.


Over to you

Try this out on people at home.

Why will it be more valid than in the class?

Over to you …..

  • Do activity 2.10 p 27

  • Use the table provided to record your results.

  • How will you make this as reliable and valid as possible?


Homework

Homework

  • Activity 2.9 p 27 (qu3 – say who the sample was not the number) .

  • Finish activity 2.10 - Try out experiment on people and record results in a line graph like the one on p26.


  • Login