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DNA. DNA Packaging Inside Nucleus. Nucleosome. Supercoil. Protein Scaffold. Chromosome. GENETIC CODE. Initiation Codon. Termination Codons. U. C. A. G. U. UUU. Phe. UCU. Ser. UAU. Tyr. UGU. Cys. UUC. Phe. UCC. Ser. UAC. Tyr. UAA. AUG. UGC. UGA. UGA. Cys. UUA.

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DNA

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Dna

DNA


Dna

DNA Packaging Inside Nucleus

Nucleosome

Supercoil

Protein

Scaffold

Chromosome


Dna

GENETIC CODE

Initiation Codon

Termination Codons

U

C

A

G

U

UUU

Phe

UCU

Ser

UAU

Tyr

UGU

Cys

UUC

Phe

UCC

Ser

UAC

Tyr

UAA

AUG

UGC

UGA

UGA

Cys

UUA

Leu

UCA

Ser

UAA

UGA

UUG

Leu

UCG

Ser

UAG

UGG

Trp

C

CUU

Leu

CCU

Pro

CAU

His

CGU

Arg

CUC

Leu

CCC

Pro

CAC

His

CGC

Arg

CUA

Leu

CCA

Pro

CAA

Gln

CGA

Arg

CUG

Leu

CCG

Pro

CAG

Gln

CGG

Arg

A

AUU

Ile

ACU

Thr

AAU

Asn

AGU

Ser

AUC

Ile

ACC

Thr

AAC

Asn

AGC

Ser

AUA

Ile

ACA

Thr

AAA

Lys

AGA

Arg

AUG

Met

ACG

Thr

AAG

Lys

AGG

Arg

G

GUU

Val

GCU

Ala

GAU

Asp

GGU

Gly

GUC

Val

GCC

Ala

GAC

Asp

GGC

Gly

GUA

Val

GCA

Ala

GAA

Glu

GGA

Gly

GUG

Val

GCG

Ala

GAG

Glu

GGG

Gly

First Base in Codon

Third Base in Codon


Dna

CELL MEMBRANE

  • Controlling what goes in and out of the cell.

  • Anchoring of the cytoskeleton to provide shape to the cell

  • Attaching to the extracellular matrix to help group cells together in the formation of tissues

  • Transportation of particles by way of ion pumps, ion channels, and carrier proteins

  • Containing receptors that allow chemical messages to pass between cells and systems

  • Participation in enzyme activity important in such things as metabolism and immunity


Dna

CELL MEMBRANE

The cell mem consists of three classes of amphipathic lipids: PHOSPOLIPIDS, GLYCOLIPIDS, STEROIDS

Membrane is held together via weak non-covalent interaction of hydrophobic tails Structure is fluid and not fixed rigidly in place.

Phospholipid molecules are “fluid”: free to diffuse and exhibit rapid lateral diffusion along the layer they are present in.


Dna

The FATTY ACID chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 14 and 24. The 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids are the most common.

In animal cells, cholesterol is found dispersed in varying degrees throughout cell membranes, where it confers a stiffening and strengthening effect on the membrane. It resides in the irregular spaces between the hydrophobic tails of the membrane lipids.

polar, hydrophilic heads

|

|

7nm

|

|

hydrophobic tails


Dna

SELECTIVE TRANSPORT OF MOLECULES ACROSS MEMBRANE

Nutrients: inWaste: out

Gate Keepers: Transmembrane PROTEINS

Create: ion channels, proton pumps, etc.

Extremely important to cell: e.g. a third of the genes in yeast code specifically for them

Again: chicken and egg

Need DNA to code for membrane proteins but

Need membrane proteins to create selective membrane to allow cell to exist.


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