Second Temple Judaism (520 BC-70AD). Brief historical survey. Major elements: temple, Torah, messianic expectations. Major religious groups. Timeline. 1020-922 undivided monarchy 922 Solomon’s kingdom divided into Northern (Israel) and Southern (Judah)
1020-922 undivided monarchy
922 Solomon’s kingdom divided into Northern (Israel) and Southern (Judah)
721 Northern kingdom is defeated by the Assyrians
597-538 Babylonian exile; 587 Temple destroyed
538-332 Persian rule; 520 Temple rebuilt. Second Temple Judaism begins.
332-167 Hellenization under Alexander the Great and his successors from Egypt & Syria
167-63 Hundred years of independence under Maccabees
63 BC Roman conquest of Palestine. Independence lost till 20th c. AD!
70 AD Second Temple destroyed.
1948 Recognition of the State of Israel
Defeated the Babylonians
Allowed the Hebrews to return from Babylon and to rebuild the Temple
Royal Necropolis of Sidon, chamber #3. Last quarter of 4th c BC. Istanbul Archeological Museum
So far has our city [Athens] surpassed the rest of mankind in thought and speech that her pupils have become the teachers of the rest of the world; and our city has brought it about that the name ‘Hellenes’ suggests no longer a race, but an intelligence, and the title ‘Hellenes’ is applied rather to those who share our culture than to those who share common blood. – Isocrates.
King Antiochus, God manifest, bearing Victory
Copy. Museo di Civilta Romana, Rome.
Original. Archeological Museum, Constantinople.
…On the way [Jesus] asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind me, Satan! For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things.” Mk 8: 27-33.