Chapter 23
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CHAPTER 23. THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY. CH. 23 - SECT.1. ELECTION OF 1960 JOHN F. KENNEDY (DEM.) VS. RICHARD NIXON (REP.) TV DEBATE - FIRST EVER ISSUES - ECONOMY AND COLD WAR VERY CLOSE ELECTION BUT JFK WON WHY WOULD A TV DEBATE FAVOR JFK OVER NIXON? OLD VS. YOUNG

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CHAPTER 23

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Chapter 23

CHAPTER 23

THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY


Ch 23 sect 1

CH. 23 - SECT.1

  • ELECTION OF 1960

  • JOHN F. KENNEDY (DEM.) VS. RICHARD NIXON (REP.)

  • TV DEBATE - FIRST EVER

  • ISSUES - ECONOMY AND COLD WAR VERY CLOSE ELECTION BUT JFK WON

  • WHY WOULD A TV DEBATE FAVOR JFK OVER NIXON?

  • OLD VS. YOUNG

  • POOR QUAKER FAMILY VS. WEALTHY AFFLUENT FAMILY

  • ATTRACTIVE VS. UNATTRACTIVE


Kennedy

KENNEDY

  • During his campaign JFK exposed the public to the “missile gap” - the fact we lagged behind the USSR in technology

  • Inauguration Day - “Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country”

  • Domestic front “New Frontier” - objective was to aid education, health insurance for the elderly, Department of Urban Affairs, help migrant workers.

  • Difficult to pass - big Gov., too costly


Kennedy1

KENNEDY

  • Things he did get passed:

  • 1. Allowed to deficit spend - spend money on credit

  • 2. Spending for defense and space

  • 3. Tax cut, min. wage to $1.25.

  • 4. Advanced rights for women

  • Esther Peterson - assistant sec. of labor

  • Created Presidential Commission on the Status of Women - called for federal action for equal pay


Warren court

Warren Court

  • Miranda vs. Arizona


Supreme court

Supreme Court

  • Earl Warren - chief justice

  • Activist - one man, one vote

  • Reapportionment - changed the way political districts are divided, power shifted to urban areas (cities) - Reynolds v. Sims “one man, one vote”


Supreme court1

Supreme Court

  • Began to apply 14th Amendment to states “No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law”

  • Gideon v. Wainwright - right to a lawyer

  • Miranda v. Arizona - must read suspects their rights (Miranda warnings)

  • Several cases reaffirmed separation of church and state - limited prayer in school


Ch 23 sect 2 jfk and the cold war

Ch. 23 - sect. 2JFK and the Cold War

  • Kennedy believed Eisenhower relied to heavily on nuclear weapons - massive retaliation

  • “Flexible Response” - JFK’s belief that the U.S. had to help countries in other ways

  • -build up conventional weapons and troops

  • - created special forces

    “Green Beret”


Aid to other countries

Aid to other countries

  • JFK believed that poor conditions in Latin American countries spurred corruption and overthrows

  • Alliance for Progress - cooperative aid projects in Latin America ($20 billion)

  • Peace Corp- organization that sent young Americans to perform humanitarian projects


Space race

Space Race

  • U.S. and USSR competing for dominance in space

  • Neal Armstrong -1st person to step on moon

  • Alan Sheppard - 1st American launched into space

  • John Glenn - 1st American to orbit the earth


Crisis of the cold war

Crisis of the Cold War

  • Bay of Pigs Invasion - Cuba

  • Fidel Castro overthrew Batista in Cuba (1959) and Cuba became allies with the USSR.

  • Eisenhower told CIA to begin training Cuban exiles - La Brigada

  • Kennedy approved the plan

  • April 17, 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion begins and ends in disaster


Bay of pigs

Bay of Pigs

  • Why was it such a disaster?

  • 1. Castro had been warned they were coming

  • 2. Boats had a lot of trouble in the bay

  • 3. The people of Cuba never rose up and turned against Castro

  • 4. U.S. command post cancels air support and leaves the exiles to be killed or captured


Bay of pigs invasion

Bay of Pigs Invasion


Berlin wall goes up

Berlin Wall Goes Up

  • Germans were leaving East Germany and moving to West Germany

  • 1961 Nikita Khruschev built the Berlin Wall to stop this, stayed up until 1989

  • Wall was 12 ft. high / 4 feet wide and 96 miles long

  • 231 people were killed trying to escape


Cuban missile crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • CIA brings JFK pictures of missile launching pads being constructed in Cuba by the Soviet Union

  • Robert Kennedy - JFK’s brother and Attorney General

  • Robert proposed a Naval Blockade around Cuba

  • Oct. 22 , 1962 blockade begins - The President informs the country

  • Khruschev agrees to remove the bases if :

    • U.S. removes their bases in Turkey

    • U.S. agreed to leave Cuba alone


Cuban missile crisis1

Cuban Missile Crisis


Kennedy assassination

Kennedy Assassination

  • November 22, 1963 - Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas

  • Accused - Lee Harvey Oswald

  • Shot from the book depository (3 shots fired)

  • Jack Ruby - Dallas nightclub owner shot Oswald while he was being transferred


Conspiracy theory

Conspiracy Theory

  • Did Lee Harvey Oswald actually act alone?

  • Warren Commission - group set up by government to investigate the shooting

  • Earl Warren - Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in charge of the investigation

  • -found that Oswald acted alone

  • Lyndon B. Johnson (JFK’s VP) - became President in 1963


Ch 23 sect 3

Ch. 23 - sect. 3

  • Lyndon Johnson is the only President ever sworn in on Air Force One

  • Brought 26 years of political experience to the Presidency

  • He was able to get things done - help bring consensus to Gov. - general agreement

  • Anti- poverty campaign - passed the Economic Opportunity Act - help fight poverty and create jobs


Sect 3 continued

Sect. 3 continued

  • 1964 Election

  • LBJ (Dem) vs. Barry Goldwater (Rep)

  • LBJ won in a landslide

  • GREAT SOCIETY - LBJ’s vision that the U.S. should work for a better society

  • Major Great Society Programs:

  • Civil rights act, Medicare, Medicaid, head start, housing, clean air

  • Robert Weaver - 1st African American to serve in a cabinet position - Sec. of Labor


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