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CHAPTER 23. THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY. CH. 23 - SECT.1. ELECTION OF 1960 JOHN F. KENNEDY (DEM.) VS. RICHARD NIXON (REP.) TV DEBATE - FIRST EVER ISSUES - ECONOMY AND COLD WAR VERY CLOSE ELECTION BUT JFK WON WHY WOULD A TV DEBATE FAVOR JFK OVER NIXON? OLD VS. YOUNG

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chapter 23

CHAPTER 23

THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY

ch 23 sect 1
CH. 23 - SECT.1
  • ELECTION OF 1960
  • JOHN F. KENNEDY (DEM.) VS. RICHARD NIXON (REP.)
  • TV DEBATE - FIRST EVER
  • ISSUES - ECONOMY AND COLD WAR VERY CLOSE ELECTION BUT JFK WON
  • WHY WOULD A TV DEBATE FAVOR JFK OVER NIXON?
  • OLD VS. YOUNG
  • POOR QUAKER FAMILY VS. WEALTHY AFFLUENT FAMILY
  • ATTRACTIVE VS. UNATTRACTIVE
kennedy
KENNEDY
  • During his campaign JFK exposed the public to the “missile gap” - the fact we lagged behind the USSR in technology
  • Inauguration Day - “Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country”
  • Domestic front “New Frontier” - objective was to aid education, health insurance for the elderly, Department of Urban Affairs, help migrant workers.
  • Difficult to pass - big Gov., too costly
kennedy1
KENNEDY
  • Things he did get passed:
  • 1. Allowed to deficit spend - spend money on credit
  • 2. Spending for defense and space
  • 3. Tax cut, min. wage to $1.25.
  • 4. Advanced rights for women
  • Esther Peterson - assistant sec. of labor
  • Created Presidential Commission on the Status of Women - called for federal action for equal pay
warren court
Warren Court
  • Miranda vs. Arizona
supreme court
Supreme Court
  • Earl Warren - chief justice
  • Activist - one man, one vote
  • Reapportionment - changed the way political districts are divided, power shifted to urban areas (cities) - Reynolds v. Sims “one man, one vote”
supreme court1
Supreme Court
  • Began to apply 14th Amendment to states “No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law”
  • Gideon v. Wainwright - right to a lawyer
  • Miranda v. Arizona - must read suspects their rights (Miranda warnings)
  • Several cases reaffirmed separation of church and state - limited prayer in school
ch 23 sect 2 jfk and the cold war
Ch. 23 - sect. 2JFK and the Cold War
  • Kennedy believed Eisenhower relied to heavily on nuclear weapons - massive retaliation
  • “Flexible Response” - JFK’s belief that the U.S. had to help countries in other ways
  • -build up conventional weapons and troops
  • - created special forces

“Green Beret”

aid to other countries
Aid to other countries
  • JFK believed that poor conditions in Latin American countries spurred corruption and overthrows
  • Alliance for Progress - cooperative aid projects in Latin America ($20 billion)
  • Peace Corp- organization that sent young Americans to perform humanitarian projects
space race
Space Race
  • U.S. and USSR competing for dominance in space
  • Neal Armstrong -1st person to step on moon
  • Alan Sheppard - 1st American launched into space
  • John Glenn - 1st American to orbit the earth
crisis of the cold war
Crisis of the Cold War
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion - Cuba
  • Fidel Castro overthrew Batista in Cuba (1959) and Cuba became allies with the USSR.
  • Eisenhower told CIA to begin training Cuban exiles - La Brigada
  • Kennedy approved the plan
  • April 17, 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion begins and ends in disaster
bay of pigs
Bay of Pigs
  • Why was it such a disaster?
  • 1. Castro had been warned they were coming
  • 2. Boats had a lot of trouble in the bay
  • 3. The people of Cuba never rose up and turned against Castro
  • 4. U.S. command post cancels air support and leaves the exiles to be killed or captured
berlin wall goes up
Berlin Wall Goes Up
  • Germans were leaving East Germany and moving to West Germany
  • 1961 Nikita Khruschev built the Berlin Wall to stop this, stayed up until 1989
  • Wall was 12 ft. high / 4 feet wide and 96 miles long
  • 231 people were killed trying to escape
cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • CIA brings JFK pictures of missile launching pads being constructed in Cuba by the Soviet Union
  • Robert Kennedy - JFK’s brother and Attorney General
  • Robert proposed a Naval Blockade around Cuba
  • Oct. 22 , 1962 blockade begins - The President informs the country
  • Khruschev agrees to remove the bases if :
    • U.S. removes their bases in Turkey
    • U.S. agreed to leave Cuba alone
kennedy assassination
Kennedy Assassination
  • November 22, 1963 - Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas
  • Accused - Lee Harvey Oswald
  • Shot from the book depository (3 shots fired)
  • Jack Ruby - Dallas nightclub owner shot Oswald while he was being transferred
conspiracy theory
Conspiracy Theory
  • Did Lee Harvey Oswald actually act alone?
  • Warren Commission - group set up by government to investigate the shooting
  • Earl Warren - Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in charge of the investigation
  • -found that Oswald acted alone
  • Lyndon B. Johnson (JFK’s VP) - became President in 1963
ch 23 sect 3
Ch. 23 - sect. 3
  • Lyndon Johnson is the only President ever sworn in on Air Force One
  • Brought 26 years of political experience to the Presidency
  • He was able to get things done - help bring consensus to Gov. - general agreement
  • Anti- poverty campaign - passed the Economic Opportunity Act - help fight poverty and create jobs
sect 3 continued
Sect. 3 continued
  • 1964 Election
  • LBJ (Dem) vs. Barry Goldwater (Rep)
  • LBJ won in a landslide
  • GREAT SOCIETY - LBJ’s vision that the U.S. should work for a better society
  • Major Great Society Programs:
  • Civil rights act, Medicare, Medicaid, head start, housing, clean air
  • Robert Weaver - 1st African American to serve in a cabinet position - Sec. of Labor
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