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Ancient India Indo-Europeans, Aryans, and Hittites. Ancient India Indo-Europeans, Aryans, and Hittites. India Timeline. Mauryan Empire Chandragupta. Mauryan Empire Asoka. Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa. Gupta Empire King Chandragupta I. Gupta Empire Collapses.

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Ancient India Indo-Europeans, Aryans, and Hittites

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Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Ancient India

Indo-Europeans,

Aryans, and Hittites

Ancient India

Indo-Europeans,

Aryans, and Hittites


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

India Timeline

Mauryan Empire

Chandragupta

Mauryan Empire

Asoka

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

Gupta Empire

King Chandragupta I

Gupta Empire

Collapses

Vedic Period – Aryan Invaders

Golden Age of India

Buddhism

500 years of turmoil

269 BC –

232 BC

2600 BC

1500 – 1000 BC

600 BC

321 BC

5th Century AD

321 AD


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

  • India’s1stcivilizations.

  • Started in 2,600BC.

  • Called the Indus Valley Civilization or the Harappan Civilization.

Map of ancient Mohenjo-Daro.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Geography

Geography

  • Ganges river – forms a fertile farming valley.

  • Indus river- farming region that produces wheat.

  • Climate is impactedby monsoons.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

  • 1st to make cotton.

  • City was developed on a grid system.

  • Advanced drainage and sewage systems.

  • Supported a population of 35,000-40,000. Ended suddenly – no one knows why.

Images of ancient Mohenjo-Daro.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

Mohenjo-Dara and Harappa

These images reflect the careful planning that went into the design of this ancient city.

Images of ancient Mohenjo-Daro.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo European and Aryan Migrations

Indo European and Aryan Migrations

  • Floods, earthquakes or changes in climate weakened civilizations, and by 1500 BC, waves of Aryan invaders migrated throughout the region.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Geography

Geography

  • Migration was made possible via the Khyber Pass through the Hindu KushMtns.

  • Himalayas-highest mountains in the world.

Hindu Kush

Himalayas

Khyber Pass

Label the Hindu Kush Mtns, the Himalayas and the downward path through the Khyber Pass.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

  • The Vedic Period - 1500-1000 BC- Invaders breached the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush Mtns.

  • Conquered the Indus valley region of India.

  • War-like and pastoral people.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

  • Aryan Kings or Leaders were called “Rajas” – (“princes”)

  • India was made of warring kingdoms and shifting alliances.

An Indian Raja and Princess.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

  • Iron tools – plow, etc, made them good farmers.

  • They produced: rice, wheat, barley, millet.

  • Spices included: cinnamon, pepper, and ginger.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

Indo European and Aryan Invaders

  • Writing – Sanskrit

  • Sanskrit was a status symbol of education and wealth.

  • Only the higher castes were taught to read and write Sanskrit.

Selections from the Rig Veda above, courtesy Wikipedia Commons.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Indo-European Languages

Indo-European Languages

Balto-Slavik

Greek

Indo-Iranian

Hittite

Armenian

Slavik

Baltic

Indic

Iranian

Polish

Czech

Russian

Ukrainian

Macedonian

Latvian

Lithuanian

Hindi

Urdu

Punjabi

Bengali

Persian

Kurdish

Italic

Germanic

Celtic

Latin

Danish

Swedish

Norwegian

English

Dutch

Afrikaans

German

Breton

Welsh

Irish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic

French

Portuguese

Spanish

Italian

Romanian


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Religions in India

Religions in India

  • The dominant religion in the region is Hinduism which was brought in by the original Aryan invaders.

  • With the birth of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) in 600 BC, the religion of Buddhism was also introduced in India.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Religions in India

Religions in India

  • Aryans brought with them a strong oral tradition, and religion.

  • These became the foundation for the religion of Hinduism.

  • They established a social institution and class system – caste system.

Vedas


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

The Caste System

The Caste System

  • Impact of the Caste System

  • Position in society based on skin color.

  • Occupation, and economic status are determined by your caste.

  • This will also determine who you marry.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Aryan Social Classes

Aryan Social Classes

  • Brahmins – priests

  • Kshatriyas – rulers and warriors

  • Vaishyas – artisans and traders

  • Shudras – laborers and servants

  • You are born into a caste for life.

  • It determines: who you will marry, the job you will have, and the people you are allowed to associate with.

  • Higher castes are concerned with ritual purity.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

The Untouchables

The Untouchables

The lowest social class were known as untouchables because they did the dirtiest work that was considered unclean and impure. They were butchers, gravediggers, and trash collectors.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Family Life in India

Family Life in India

  • Patriarchal – men are educated and allowed to inherit.

  • Women - nostatus, and daughters were an financial drain. (Dowry).

  • Suttee – wife throws herself onto the pyre of her dead husband.

A Hindu widow commits sati above.

A Rajput girl – right.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

  • After 400 B.C., India faced new threats from the west–first from Persia, Greece, and Macedonia, under Alexander the Great in 327 B.C.

  • Alexander left quickly, but his invasion gave rise to the 1stIndiandynasty.

Alexander’s battle with Porus on the Jhelum.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

  • 321 BC - King Chandragupta established one of the greatestHinduempires – the Mauryan Empire.

  • He created a large army – 60,000soldiers, 30,000cavalry, and 9,000elephants.

King Chandragupta


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

  • The Mauryan Empire stretched from modern day Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west, to the Ganges river in the east.

  • His grandson, Asoka would be the next great ruler of India.

Extent of Mauryan Empire under Asoka


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

  • The “founding Father” for India, was Mauryan ruler, Asoka who ruled from 268 BC -232 BC.

  • Asoka added to his empire through a bloody battle at Kalinga.

  • Saddened over the loss of life, Asoka turned to Buddhism for comfort.

Asoka Maurya above. Image courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

  • “Along the roads, wells have been dug and trees planted for the use of men and beasts.”

  • “I must promote the welfare of the whole world, and hard work…whatever may be my great deeds, I have done them in order to discharge my debt to all beings.”

  • Asoka’s edicts – pillar edicts and rock edicts.

Map of Asoka’s rock edicts


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

  • Asoka sent missionaries to other lands, spreading Buddhism.

  • Carved royalmessages on stonemonuments that stood as “billboards” throughout his empire.

  • His empire collapsed50 years after his death, but to this day, his impact and legacy on India is powerful.

Asoka’s Chakra – chosen 2,000 years later for India’s flag.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Kingdom of the Guptas

Kingdom of the Guptas

  • 500 years later-Chandragupta, (no relation to the 1st Chandragupta), established a new kingdom in 320 A.D. He was called the Great King of Kings.

  • The Gupta period was India’s Golden Age.

  • Arts,sciences and trade flourished.

Map of the Gupta Empire-413 AD


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Kingdom of the Guptas

Kingdom of the Guptas

  • Aryabhata was the Gupta Empire’s most famous mathematician.

  • He was one of the first scientists known to have used algebra.

  • Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of zero.

Aryabhata


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Kingdom of the Guptas

Kingdom of the Guptas

  • The Guptas postulated that the Earth was notflat, but rotated on its axis.

  • Astronomers calculated the solar year and the movement of bodies in space.

  • In medicine, the Guptas knew how to setbones, and perform minor skin grafts.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Kingdom of the Guptas

Kingdom of the Guptas

  • They traded salt, cloth, and iron domestically and as far away as China and the Mediterranean.

  • In the 5th century A.D., invasion by nomadicHuns from the northwest weakened the empire.

Trade in the ancient world brought many cultures and kingdoms together. Silk road was 4,000 miles.


Ancient india indo europeans aryans and hittites

Contributions of India

Contributions of India

  • Writing – Sanskrit

  • Many of the World’s Languages

  • 3-Religions/Eastern Philosophies of: Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

  • Spice merchants and tradesmen.


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