digestion
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
DIGESTION

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 52

DIGESTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

DIGESTION. ANSC 101. Definition. Digestion is all of the chemical and physical changes that food undergoes to be absorbed. Absorption takes place as nutrients enter the body from the digestive tract. Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine. Liver, gall bladder

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'DIGESTION' - rigg


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
digestion

DIGESTION

ANSC 101

definition
Definition
  • Digestion is all of the chemical and physical changes that food undergoes to be absorbed.
  • Absorption takes place as nutrients enter the body from the digestive tract.
gi tract digestive system
Mouth

Esophagus

Stomach

Small intestine

Large intestine

Liver,

gall bladder

pancreas

GI Tract – Digestive System
mouth
MOUTH
  • Teeth
  • Tongue
  • Salivary glands
esophagus
Esophagus
  • Birds
    • CROP
  • Mammals
stomach
Stomach
  • Complexity varies
    • Simple in monogastrics (nonruminants)
    • 4-chambered complex stomach of ruminant
functions of stomach
Functions of Stomach
  • STORAGE
  • Chemical Digestion
non ruminant stomach
Non-Ruminant Stomach
  • 4 regions
    • Esophageal
    • Cardiac
    • Fundic
    • Pyloric
poultry
Poultry
  • “Stomach” is called PROVENTRICULUS
  • Has same functions as mammal
gastric secretions
Gastric Secretions
  • HCL
    • Activates pepsinogen to pepsin
    • Does some digestion itself
  • Gastric Enzymes
    • Pepsin
    • Lipase
    • Renin
  • Mucin
  • Intrinsic Factor (for absorbing B12)
ruminant stomach
Ruminant Stomach
  • 4 compartments
    • Rumen – big fermentation vat
    • Reticulum – “hardware stomach”
    • Omasum – “many plies”
    • Abomasum – “true stomach”
rumen microbiology
Rumen Microbiology
  • Bacteria do 3 things
    • Digest CHO to VFA’s (including cellulose)
    • Remodel proteins, manufacture essential amino acids and utilize NPN
    • Manufacture B vitamins
summary of rumen action
Summary of Rumen Action
  • CHO ——> VFA’s
  • Proteins ——> Bacterial protein
  • Fats ——> hydrogenated but not much utilization
  • B Vitamins ——> synthesized
  • Vitamins ADE ——> needed in diet
small intestine
Small Intestine
  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum
digestive juices
Digestive Juices
  • Bile
    • Produced in the LIVER
    • Stored in the Gall Bladder
  • Pancreatic juice
    • Exocrine secretions
      • Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate
      • Enzymes
    • Endocrine secretions
      • Insulin
      • Glucogon
digestive juices continued
Digestive Juices continued
  • Secretions from small intestine wall
    • They digest disaccharides, peptides, etc to forms that can be absorbed
absorption
Absorption
  • Molecules must get from gut lumen into brush border of epithelial cells, then across cells into blood or lymph.
  • Occurs by diffusion, facilitated absorption and active absorption.
large intestine
Large Intestine
  • Ascending, transverse and decending colon
  • FUNCTIONS:
    • Storage
    • Absorption of water
  • Special role of cecum
cecum
Cecum
  • Blind pouch at junction of small and large intestine
  • Developed in nonruminant herbivores (horses, rabbits)
  • Provides post-absorptive fermentation vat
    • Digests cellulose, Does NOT provide protein
metabolism defined cho
Metabolism defined | CHO
  • Use by the body of nutrients and metabolites
  • Carbohydrates – converted to tiny amounts of glycogen, used for blood sugar, or converted to ATP (energy), stored as fat
metabolism of fats
Metabolism of Fats
  • Go to liver, then to fat storage, or used for energy
metabolism of proteins
Metabolism of Proteins
  • Amino acids enter blood stream and supply cells with amino acids for protein synthesis
  • Amino acids not quickly used are deaminated and used for energy
metabolism of energy
Metabolism of Energy
  • Energy in the chemical form of ATP is either used by the tissues or stored in animals as fat
metabolism of vit s minerals
Metabolism of Vit’s & Minerals
  • Vitamins are involved in tissues throughout the body, maintaining structures and participating in chemical reactions
  • Minerals make up structural components and activate enzymes, maintain water balance, and more.
end of digestion 101
End of Digestion, 101
  • Next we will consider where animals will GET those nutrients:
  • FROM FEEDS
animal feeds
Animal Feeds
  • 2 major catagories of energy-providing feeds are:
  • Concentrates
  • Roughages
concentrates
Concentrates
  • Grains
    • High in energy, low in fiber, low in protein, low protein quality
  • Protein supplements
    • From oil seeds (like soybean meal)
    • From animal byproducts, fish byproducts, etc.
roughages
Roughages
  • Not used or used poorly by nonruminants
  • CATAGORIES
    • Grasses
    • Legumes
    • Crop residues
grasses
Grasses
  • Grow “everywhere”
  • Moderate energy source
  • Low protein source
  • Low calcium levels
  • Good for meeting maintenance needs
legumes
Legumes
  • Moderate sources of energy
  • High protein levels
  • High calcium levels
  • Not adapted to grow well everywhere
  • Where they do grow, they increase soil fertility
legumes1
Legumes
  • Alfalfa
  • Red clover
  • White clover
  • Sweetclover
  • Alsike
crop residues
Crop Residues
  • Provide bulk
  • Some but low levels of energy
  • Useful in helping meet maintenance
  • Very cheap except for processing and transportation costs
forages can be fed as
Forages can be fed as:
  • Pasture
  • Hay
  • Silage
ration balancing
Ration Balancing
  • The task of meeting the animals nutrient requirements with the feeds provided to the animal
ration balancing1
Ration Balancing
  • Determine animal’s requirements
    • From NRC, Extension publications, etc.
  • Get feed’s nutrient content
    • From analysis or feed tables
  • DO THE MATH
    • By hand or
    • By computer program
example by hand
Example by Hand
  • Say pig needs 16% CP, & using Corn with 8% CP and Suppl. with 36% CP.

16 = .08X + .36(100-X)

16 = .08X + 36 - .36X

16 – 36 = .08X - .36X

- 20 = - .28X

X = -20X/-.28X = 71.4% corn

100 – X = 28.6% supplement

feeding programs
Feeding programs
  • Pigs and poultry are fed primarily “simple” diets based on corn for energy, SBM for protein, and fortified with vitamins and minerals.
  • Full feed growing/finishing pigs
  • Limit feed pregnant sows & gilts
  • Use antibiotics judiciously
beef and sheep
Beef and Sheep
  • Summer rely on range, pasture when possible
  • Winter: need preserved feeds:
    • Hay
    • Silage
    • Grain as needed
slide47
Feed cows, ewes according to stage of production
    • Needs are low at maintenance
    • Needs increase in last 1 /3 gestation
    • Needs are high during lactation
  • Maintain animal’s body condition
feeding beef cows
Feeding Beef Cows
  • For MOST, that means:
    • Spring & summer = Pasture
    • Fall – Winter = Preserved feeds
    • Late Winter (late gestation) supplement
      • Grain
      • Protein as needed
    • Test hay to know what you are feeding
slide49
Allow calves to grow (backgrounding)
  • Then place in feedlot on high energy feeds (grain)
feeding dairy cattle
Feeding Dairy Cattle
  • Requirements are very high due to high milk production
  • Intake is high (4% BW vs ~2% for beef)
  • Feed grain for high production (up to 60% of total DM)
dairy feeding
Dairy feeding
  • Must maintain at least 40% forage in the ration
ad