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SIMS 247: Information Visualization and Presentation Marti Hearst. Sept 19, 2005. C o l o r. Most of this segment taken from Colin Ware, Ch. 4. Terms. Hue The differences in color that languages assign names to Saturation: Sometimes called “vividness”, sometimes “brightness” Lightness:

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C o l o r

Color

Most of this segment taken from Colin Ware, Ch. 4


Terms
Terms

  • Hue

    • The differences in color that languages assign names to

  • Saturation:

    • Sometimes called “vividness”, sometimes “brightness”

  • Lightness:

    • A relative measure

    • How much light appears to reflect from an object compared to what looks like white in a scene (Brewer)

    • Also sometimes called “value”

  • Other terms

    • These are used inconsistently

    • Intensity (often used to mean Saturation + Lightness)

    • Luminance (physically measured amount of reflected light)

    • Chromaticity (hue without brightness)


Color issues
Color Issues

  • Complexity of color space

    • 3-dimensional

    • Computer vs. Print display

    • There are many models and standards

  • Color not critical for many visual tasks

    • Doesn’t help with determination of:

      • Layout of objects in space

      • Motion of objects

      • Shape of objects

    • Color-blind people often go for years without knowing about their condition

  • Color is essential for

    • “Breaking camouflage”

    • Recognizing distinctions

      • Picking berries out from leaves

      • Spoiled meat vs. good

    • Aesthetics


Cie color model cie commision internationale l eclairage
CIE Color ModelCIE = Commision Internationale L’Eclairage

Images from lecture by Terrance Brooke


Cie color model properties
CIE Color Model Properties

Slide adapted from Wolfgang Muller, http://www.iuw.fh-darmstadt.de/mueller/SS2002/VisWP/07-color-color.pdf


Cie color model properties1
CIE Color Model Properties

Slide adapted from Wolfgang Muller, http://www.iuw.fh-darmstadt.de/mueller/SS2002/VisWP/07-color-color.pdf


Small color patches more difficult to distinguish
Small Color Patches More Difficult to Distinguish

Images from lecture by Terrance Brooke


Order of appearance of color names across world cultures
Order of Appearance of Color Names across World Cultures

Slide adapted from Wolfgang Muller, http://www.iuw.fh-darmstadt.de/mueller/SS2002/VisWP/07-color-color.pdf


Isolating color names within a computer display
Isolating Color Names within a Computer Display

Slide adapted from Wolfgang Muller, http://www.iuw.fh-darmstadt.de/mueller/SS2002/VisWP/07-color-color.pdf


Background color contrast
Background Color Contrast

Slide adapted from Wolfgang Muller, http://www.iuw.fh-darmstadt.de/mueller/SS2002/VisWP/07-color-color.pdf


Some color fun facts
Some Color Fun Facts

  • People agree strongly on what pure yellow is

  • There may be two unique greens

  • Brown is dark yellow, requires a reference white nearby


Colors for labeling
Colors for Labeling

  • Ware recommends to take into account:

    • Distinctness

    • Unique hues

    • Contrast with background

    • Color blindness

    • Number

      • Only a small number of codes can be rapidly perceived

    • Field Size

      • Small changes in color are difficult to perceive

    • Conventions


Ware s recommended colors for labeling
Ware’s Recommended Colors for Labeling

Red, Green, Yellow, Blue, Black, White, Pink, Cyan, Gray, Orange, Brown, Purple.

The top six colors are chosen because they are the unique colors that mark the ends

of the opponent color axes. The entire set corresponds to the eleven color names found

to be the most common in a cross-cultural study, plus cyan (Berlin and Kay)

Slide adapted from Terrance Brooke


More color use guidelines
More Color Use Guidelines

  • From Cynthia Brewer reading

    • She’s a cartographer, has a unique perspective

    • Geocoordinates are already taken

  • Four-way Guidelines:

    • Binary

    • Qualitative

    • Diverging

    • Sequential

  • Make combinations of these

    • Seq-Seq, Seq-Qual, etc.

    • I’m not convinced these all work


Color scheme types brewer
Color Scheme Types (Brewer)

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Binary example
Binary Example

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Sequential examples
Sequential Examples

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Sequential example
Sequential Example

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Spectral scheme not suitable for sequential data
Spectral SchemeNot suitable for sequential data

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Qualitative differences example
Qualitative Differences Example

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Qualitative color schemes
Qualitative Color Schemes

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Diverging color examples
Diverging Color Examples

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Divering color scheme
Divering Color Scheme

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Qualitative binary example
Qualitative-Binary Example

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Qualitative sequential example
Qualitative-Sequential Example

I suspect this is too much to keep track of.

From http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/c/a/cab38/ColorSch/Schemes.html


Application to class projects
Application to Class Projects

  • Map of Immigration Routes

    http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~vijay/InfoViz/project/writeup/


Next time
Next Time

  • Start Interaction Topics

  • Turn in A1

  • Learn about A2


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