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PSC 4010. Nuclear Technology: A matter of Energy. PSC 4010: Chapter 3. Goals: _ SWBAT locate the different families and groups of elements found in the modern Periodic Table _SWBAT use information found or deducted from the modern Periodic Table about any of the first twenty elements

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PSC 4010

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Psc 4010

PSC 4010

Nuclear Technology: A matter of Energy


Psc 4010 chapter 3

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Goals:

_ SWBAT locate the different families and groups of elements found in the modern Periodic Table

_SWBAT use information found or deducted from the modern Periodic Table about any of the first twenty elements

_SWBAT compare the atomic structure of the isotopes of an element

_SWBAT calculate the atomic mass of an element, given the relative abundance of its isotopes


Psc 4010 chapter 31

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Classification of elements:

Mendeleyev

_Created first Periodic Table (page 3.6)

_Organized elements according to Atomic Mass

_Periodic: Columns of element with similar properties

_Predicted existence of elements according to observed periodicity (blank spaces in table)

Dalton

_Made a list of 60 known elements

_From lightest (Hydrogen) to heaviest


Psc 4010 chapter 32

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Symbols:

  • You must know the name of the first 20 elements of the Periodic Table (plus a couple of very common metals)

  • Some elements are represented by a capital letter, others by a combination of two (capital and lower capital)

  • Examples: O (Oxygen), Fe (Iron)


Psc 4010 chapter 33

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Modern Periodical Table

  • 90 natural elements

  • 19 artificial elements

  • Elements are organized according to their atomic number

  • Horizontal rows represent Periods or Energy Levels

  • Vertical rows represent Groups or Families of elements, with similar chemical properties


Psc 4010 chapter 34

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Modern Periodical Table

  • Black elements are solids

  • Blue elements are liquids [only two: Mercury (Hg) and Bromine (Br)]

  • Red ones are gases [eleven: Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn)]


Psc 4010 chapter 35

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Atomic numbers


Psc 4010 chapter 36

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Periods

Period I

H: 1e

He:2e

Period II

Li: 2e, 1e

Be:2e, 2e

N: 2e, 5e

Period III

Na:2e, 8e, 1e

P: 2e, 8e, 5e

Cl: 2e, 8e, 7e

Period I

H: 1e

He:2e

Period II

Li: 2e, 1e

Be:2e, 2e

N: 2e, 5e

Period III

Na:2e, 8e, 1e

P: 2e, 8e, 5e

Cl: 2e, 8e, 7e

The number of the period tells you the amount of energy levels for electrons to surround the nucleus


Psc 4010 chapter 37

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Groups (Families)

Group I

Li:2e, 1e

Na: 2e, 8e, 1e

K: 2e, 8e, 8e, 1e

Group II

Be:2e, 2e

Mg: 2e, 8e, 2e

Ca: 2e, 8e, 8e, 2e

Group V

N:2e, 5e

P: 2e, 8e, 5e

Group I

Li:2e, 1e

Na: 2e, 8e, 1e

K: 2e, 8e, 8e, 1e

Group II

Be:2e, 2e

Mg: 2e, 8e, 2e

Ca: 2e, 8e, 8e, 2e

Group V

N:2e, 5e

P: 2e, 8e, 5e

The number of the group (family) tells you the amount of electrons in the last shell


Psc 4010 chapter 38

PSC 4010: Chapter 3


Psc 4010 chapter 39

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Metals:

  • On the left of dark staircased-type line (except Hydrogen)

  • “Metallic” luster

  • Conduct electricity and heat

Non-metals:

  • On the right of dark staircased-type line (also Hydrogen)

  • Do not have shiny luster

  • Do not conduct electricity or heat


Psc 4010 chapter 310

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Group IA

  • Alkali metals

  • One electron in outermost shell

  • Very soft to touch

  • Extremely reactive with water (stored swimming in oil, to avoid reaction with air’s humidity)


Psc 4010 chapter 311

PSC 4010: Chapter 3


Psc 4010 chapter 312

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Group IIA

  • Alkaline-Earth metals

  • Two electrons in outermost shell

  • Less soft to touch

  • Less reactive with water


Psc 4010 chapter 313

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Transition Metals

  • Heavy metals between groups IIA and IIIA


Psc 4010 chapter 314

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Lantanides

  • 15 heavy metals from atomic number 57 to 71

  • They have very similar properties

  • Name comes from Lanthanum, the first of them


Psc 4010 chapter 315

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Actinides

  • 15 heavy metals from atomic number 89 to 103

  • They have very similar properties

  • Name comes from Actinium, the first of them

  • They are radioactive (unstable, nuclei break into smaller atoms)


Psc 4010 chapter 316

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Group VIIA

  • Halogens

  • They have seven electrons in their outermost shell

  • They are very reactive

  • Never to be found alone (if not attached to another element, attached to themselves in diatomic molecules, e.g. Cl2, F2 , etc.)


Psc 4010 chapter 317

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Group VIIIA

  • Noble Gases

  • They have eight electrons in their outermost shell

  • They are very inert

  • Do not react with anybody, and are considered rare gases for they account for only 1% of gases in atmosphere


Psc 4010 chapter 318

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Hydrogen

  • One of a kind

  • Lightest and most abundant element

  • Non-metal (gaseous)


Psc 4010 chapter 2

PSC 4010: Chapter 2

Practice Exercises:

  • Page 3.8 – Ex 3.4 & 3.5

  • Page 3.23 – 3.24 – Ex 3.9 – 3.11

  • Page 2.13 – Ex 2.5


Psc 4010 chapter 319

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Isotopes

Atoms that have the same number of protons (and electrons), but different number of neutrons.

Isotopes have the same atomic number, but different atomic masses (and mass number)

Mass number is the atomic mass rounded to its closest integer. It represents the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

(#neutrons = mass number – atomic number)


Psc 4010 chapter 320

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Isotopes notation

The higher the number of neutrons in an isotope, the lower its stability


Psc 4010 chapter 321

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

The atomic mass of isotopes of the same element is the result of the mixture of these isotopes in different proportions

The proportion of an isotope is expressed as a percentage, and it is called “relative abundance” (table on page 3.28)

Therefore, in order to calculate the real atomic mass of any element, you have to multiply the mass number of each isotope by their relative abundance percentage, and add them together.


Psc 4010 chapter 322

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Example:

Knowing that there is a 98.99% of C-12 in nature, a 1.11% of C-13, and traces of C-14, calculate the atomic mass of Carbon (C):

= (12 * 98.99/100) + (13 * 1.11/100) + 14 (0/100)

= 11.8668amu + 0.1443amu

= 12.0111 amu


Psc 4010 chapter 323

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Need another example of calculations?!

(Table 3.1, page 3.28, Nitrogen)

Knowing that there is a 99.64% of N-14 in nature, and a 0.37% of N-15, calculate the atomic mass of Nitrogen (N):

= (14 * 99.64/100) + (15 * 0.37/100)

= 13.9496amu + 0.0555amu

= 14.0051 amu


Psc 4010 chapter 324

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Each group’s number is equal to the number of electrons in outermost shell

Modern Periodic Table organized in increasing number of atomic number (or # protons or # electrons)

What have we learned so far?

Each period’s number is equal to the number of energy levels (orbits) of electrons

Metals are found on the left of dark stair cased-type line (except Hydrogen)

Non-metals are found on the right of dark stair cased-type line (also Hydrogen)

Group IA: Alkali metals

Group IIA: Alkaline-Earth metals

Group VIIA: Halogens

Group VIIIA: Noble Gases


Psc 4010 chapter 325

PSC 4010: Chapter 3

Same atomic number, therefore, same number of protons (and electrons)

Isotopes are atoms of the same element, with same atomic number, but different atomic mass

What have we learned about isotopes?

Mass number is the closest integer to which atomic mass (a decimal) is rounded up to

Mass number = Atomic number (# protons) +

# neutrons

Atomic mass = (mass number)I1 * (relative abundance) I1 + (mass number)I2* (relative abundance) I2 + ...

+ (mass number)In* (relative abundance) In+


Psc 4010 chapter 21

PSC 4010: Chapter 2

Practice Exercises:

  • Page 3.29 – 3.30 – Ex 3.13 – 3.16


Psc 4010 chapter 22

PSC 4010: Chapter 2

Practice Exercises for Chapter 3:

  • Page 3.34 – 3.38 – Ex 3.17 – 3.34


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