genetic disorders
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Genetic Disorders. In general…. Most traits are neither harmful or helpful Ex. Blood type – there is no advantage or disadvantage to having A or B blood type Some are helpful Ex. Coloration on an animal Mimicry Camouflage Some are harmful Ex. Health risks. Autosomal diseases.

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Presentation Transcript
in general
In general…
  • Most traits are neither harmful or helpful
    • Ex. Blood type – there is no advantage or disadvantage to having A or B blood type
  • Some are helpful
    • Ex. Coloration on an animal
      • Mimicry
      • Camouflage
  • Some are harmful
    • Ex. Health risks
autosomal diseases
Autosomal diseases
  • Autosomal traits – carried on autosomes
    • 22 pairs of autosomes
    • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
      • X and Y
inherited diseases
Inherited Diseases
  • Some diseases are genetic (passed down from one generation to the next)
  • Many inherited diseases result from mutations
    • What is a mutation?
  • Most are autosomal
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Huntington disease
    • Sickle cell
  • Others on sex chromosomes
cystic fibrosis cf
Cystic fibrosis (CF)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L10W9MdRjPs

  • Disease affecting sweat and mucous glands
  • Chloride ions outside of cells lead to problems maintaining salt balance
  • Affects lungs – thicker and stickier mucous
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Supports bacterial growth
  • Also affects pancreas, liver, and sex organs
  • Autosomal recessive
huntington disease
Huntington Disease
  • Degenerative disease of the nervous system
  • Progressive – worse over time
    • Eventually breaks down nerves in the brain
  • Causes:
    • Uncontrollable movements
    • Mental deterioration
    • Premature death
  • Autosomal DOMINANT
  • Generally has late onset

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MRZoM5L5dak

sickle cell
Sickle Cell
  • Changes in hemoglobin (a protein in blood)
  • Red blood cells fold into a sickle shape
  • Problems:
    • blockages in blood flow
    • Weakness and pain
    • Damanges brain, heart and spleen
  • Can be fatal
  • Autosomal recessive
  • Incomplete dominance
  • 1 allele means you have the sickle cell trait
  • Increases chances of surviving malaria
hemophilia
Hemophilia

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhyD0vdQDZs

  • Unable to produce normal clotting protein
  • Bruise easily
  • Can die from minor cuts – can’t stop bleeding
  • Commonly sex linked trait
  • Occurs mostly in what gender?
genes and the environment
Genes and the Environment
  • Behavior or certain substances can affect the expression of a gene
  • Heart disease and diabetes
    • Genetic component accelerated by diet and exercise
  • Skin cancer
    • UV rays strongly related to skin cancer but a higher risk in fair skin and light hair and eyes
pedigrees
Pedigrees
  • Chart or family tree, that traces the inheritance of a trait
  • Carriers have one copy of each gene
slide12

Horizontal lines indicate marriage or parentage

  • Vertical lines are children
  • Generations are numbered
  • People are

numbered

  • Males = squares
  • Females = circles
  • Solid = affected
  • Blank = unaffected
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