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BRAZING FLUX STUDIES. INTERNATIONAL BRAZING AND SOLDERING CONFERENCE ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO / APRIL 4, 2000. Presented By: Dr. Y. Baskin Superior Flux & Manufacturing Company Cleveland, Ohio. PURPOSE.

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brazing flux studies

BRAZING FLUX STUDIES

INTERNATIONAL BRAZING AND SOLDERING CONFERENCE

ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO / APRIL 4, 2000

  • Presented By:Dr. Y. BaskinSuperior Flux & Manufacturing CompanyCleveland, Ohio
purpose
PURPOSE
  • To study the effects of time, temperature, and flux formulation on activation and exhaustion temperatures, which determine flux activity ranges. The role of several different base metals and filler metals was also studied
equipment
EQUIPMENT
  • Thermolyne 1500 Furnace - Maximum Temperature 1300° C
  • 30 Tempilstik Temperature Indicators -400° - 1200° C
  • Calibrated Pyrometer with Surface Probe
  • Timer
  • Balance
base metals
BASE METALS
  • Mild Steel
  • Stainless Steel 316
  • Copper
  • Brass (70% Copper, 30% Zinc)
filler metals
FILLER METALS

Bag-1

  • Composition: 45% Silver, 15% Copper, 16% Zinc, 24% Cadmium Melting Point: 618° C

Braze 630 - Bag-21, SAE-AMS 4774

  • Composition: 63% Silver, 28.5% Copper, 6% Tin, 2.5% NickelMelting Point: 690° C

High-Temp 095, SAE-AMS 4764

  • Composition: 52.5% Copper, 38% Manganese, 9.5% NickelMelting Point: 875° C
fluxes
Boric Acid

Potassium Tetraborate

Potassium Fluoborate

Potassium Carbonate

Potassium Fluroide

Potassium Bifluoride

Sodium Tetraborate (Borax)

Silica

Potassium Pentaborate

FLUXES

Fifteen fluxes were used, including existing products and experimental, formulations. Compositions included the following raw materials:

flux compositions in the pseudo ternary k b f
FLUX COMPOSITIONSIN THE PSEUDOTERNARY K-B-F

Atomic Percent Boron (Silicon

Atomic Percent Fluorine

Atomic Percent Potassium (Sodium)

furnace calibration pyrometer base metals mild steel soak time 40 seconds

Furnace Temperature (°C)

100

151

200

250

301

350

400

450

500

551

599

650

702

750

800

850

900

950

1001

1051

1100

1150

1200

1249

1301

Pyrometer Temperature (°C)

97

148

196

247

300

351

399

448

500

547

596

650

700

748

797

849

899

950

998

1049

1100

1147

1200

1250

1302

FURNACECALIBRATION/PYROMETERBASE METALS: MILD STEELSOAK TIME: 40 SECONDS
furnace callibration pyrometer mild steel 40 seconds

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

FURNACECALLIBRATIONPYROMETERMILD STEEL/40 SECONDS

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

PyrometerTemperature (C°)

Furnace Temperature (C°)

effect of time on flux activation temperature mild steel

1000

900

800

700

600

0

0

40

80

120

160

EFFECT OF TIME ON FLUX ACTIVATION TEMPERATURE/ MILD STEEL

Flux ActivationTemperature (C°)

Time, Seconds

flux activiation temperature as a function of b f ratio 40 second soak tiime

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0

0

700

800

900

1000

FLUX ACTIVIATION TEMPERATURE AS A FUNCTION OF B/F RATIO(40 SECOND SOAK TIIME)

B/F Ratio

Temperature (C°)

flux exhustion temperture mild steel and stainless steel

Flux Mild Steel (C°) Stainless Steel (C°)

1 967 967

2 1050 1067

3 1058 1092

4 1200 1200

5 1100 1150

6 1142 1167

7 1156 1142

8 1150 1158

9 1233 1158

10 1233 1175

11 1117 1117

12 1233 1262

13 1283 1280

14 1267 1275

15 1272 1250

Flux Mild Steel (C°) Stainless Steel (C°)

1 967 967

2 1050 1067

3 1058 1092

4 1200 1200

5 1100 1150

6 1142 1167

7 1156 1142

8 1150 1158

9 1233 1158

10 1233 1175

11 1117 1117

12 1233 1262

13 1283 1280

14 1267 1275

15 1272 1250

FLUX EXHUSTION TEMPERTURE/ MILD STEEL AND STAINLESS STEEL
flux exhaustion temperature as a function of b f ratio 40 second soak time

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0

0

700

800

900

1000

FLUX EXHAUSTION TEMPERATURE AS A FUNCTION OFB/F RATIO (40 SECOND SOAK TIME)

B/F Ratio

Temperature (C°)

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Flux compositions high in boron and low in fluorine generally exhibit better high temperature properties , whereas compositions low in boron and high in fluorine show better and more active low temperature properties, Difference s in raw materials and other chemical factors may account for the departure from a more linear relationship between activation or exhaustion temperature and B/F ratios.
  • Increased soaking time reduces flux activation temperature.
conclusions continued
CONCLUSIONS (Continued)
  • Neither flux activation temperature nor exhaustion temperature are affected by the base metal used, as long as the stability range of the metal is not exceeded.
  • Similarly flux exhaustion temperatures are not affected by the filler metal used, as long as the stability of the filler metal is not exceeded.
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