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Requirements Traceability: Planning, Tracking and Managing Requirements. Presenter: Paula R. Maychruk, BV/TEd., CAPM, CBAP. Key Learning Points. Describe requirement attributes, and how they can assist with requirements planning and prioritization (PLANNING)

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Requirements traceability planning tracking and managing requirements

Requirements Traceability: Planning, Tracking and Managing Requirements

Presenter: Paula R. Maychruk, BV/TEd., CAPM, CBAP


Key learning points
Key Learning Points

  • Describe requirement attributes, and how they can assist with requirements planning and prioritization (PLANNING)

  • Understand how to trace requirements from planning, through design and development, and on into the testing and implementation phases of a project/product (TRACKING)

  • Recognize how requirements traceability can facilitate requirements change (MANAGING)


Session agenda
Session Agenda

  • Planning (and Prioritizing) Requirements

    “Setting up for Traceability”

  • Tracking Requirements

    “Traceability in Action”

  • Managing Requirements

    “The Power of Traceability”


Traceability defined
Traceability, Defined

  • Links downstream work products to the purpose for which they were created

  • Provides a process to confirm that the Requirements Elicitation process is complete

  • Ensures that project work is not authorized for items that are outside of project scope

  • Enables stakeholder notification during the change management process

  • Increases quality on all project sizes and types

  • Facilitates the requirements change control process

BABOK, Version 1.6, Page 131


The planning process
The PLANNING Process

  • Identify the business problem

  • Drill down to the business needs/wants

  • Create a detailed scope list

  • Set initial business priorities and assess overall business risk

  • Determine what the high- to mid-level business requirements are (feature list)

  • Assign requirements attributes


The planning process continued
The PLANNING Process – continued

  • Set priorities (based on both business and technical attributes)

  • Begin defining high-level estimates

  • Refine scope of the project; re-prioritize (if necessary)

  • Once final scope is set, begin documenting detailed requirements (including NFRs)

  • Control requirements change


Where does traceability begin
Where Does Traceability Begin?

  • Start with Business Needs/Wants

  • Start with Scope

  • Start with High-Level Business Requirements

  • Start with Product Features

    • Requirements Attributes


Traceability in the babok

User Needs

Trace

High-Level

Product Desc

Enterprise

Analysis

Design &

Construction

Trace

Trace

Requirements

Gathering &

Analysis

BRD

Supp Specs

Design

Artifact

Trace

Trace

Trace

Test Case

Test Case

Test Period

Traceability in the BABOK

BABOK, Version 1.6, Page 132


Requirements numbering
Requirements Numbering

  • Unique numeric and/or textual identifier (R1, R2, etc.)

  • Can use prefix to differentiate between Functional and Non-Functional requirements (F1, F2 and N1, N2, etc.)

  • No rules, except no duplicates

  • Absolute reference – not to be altered or re-used if the requirement is moved, changed or deleted


Requirements attributes babok definitions
Requirements Attributes – BABOK Definitions

  • “Requirements attributes provide information about the requirement…”

  • “The information documented by the attributes helps the team efficiently and effectively make tradeoffs between requirements… understanding the impact of a proposed change.”

BABOK, Version 1.6, Page 203


Types of attributes examples

Requirement ID

Version

Owner

Source

Status

Risk

Complexity

Stability

Priority

Author

Use Case Xref

Dependencies

Test Case Xref

Types of Attributes (Examples)


Prioritizing requirements
Prioritizing Requirements

  • Using Requirement Attributes

    • High risk items should be implemented first, but only if high stability

    • High complexity items should be implemented first, but only if medium-low risk

    • Ranking adjusted based on business/technical priority

  • Using Agile Methodology

    • Start with items of technical/architectural significance


Calculating requirements priority
Calculating Requirements Priority

  • Risk * Complexity * Stability * Priority = Calculated Rating

    • Risk (H = 5, M = 3, L = 1)

    • Complexity (H = 5, M = 3, L = 1)

    • Stability (H = 1, M = 3, L = 5)

    • Priority (H = 5, M = 3, L = 1)

  • Scoring

    • Highest Point Value = 625

    • Lowest Point Value = 1


Requirements cross referencing
Requirements Cross-Referencing

  • Types of Requirements Xrefs:

    • High-level business requirements or features

    • Use Cases or User Stories (detailed requirements)

    • Supplementary Specifications (NFRs)

    • Design elements

    • Development components

    • Test scenarios, test cases


The tracking process
The TRACKING Process

  • Tracing requirements through:

    • Requirements Planning

    • Solution Design

    • Software Development (Coding)

    • System Testing

    • Implementation




Traceability and the brd
Traceability and the BRD

  • BRD = detailed requirements

  • For a large BRD, issue amendments

  • If design is in progress, issue amendments

  • If design is finished, updated detailed design doc (development) and the BRD (testing)

  • Use Cases – separate documents with overall index (easier to update and maintain)

  • Requirements versioning


Traceability @ implementation
Traceability @ Implementation

  • All requirements should now be marked “complete”

    • Validate that all requirements were met

    • Validate that all business objectives were met

  • Metrics:

    • Assess the % of unused requirements

    • Assess the % of changed requirements

    • Were estimates accurate?


The managing process
The MANAGING Process

  • Managing requirements by:

    • Controlling scope

    • Responding to change

    • Change management (project change control)

  • Traceability


Controlling scope
Controlling Scope

  • Requirements Change Control

    • New

    • Modifications

    • Removal

  • Avoid SCOPE CREEP

    • Alignment with business objectives

  • Using traceability to assess impact


Responding to change
Responding to Change

  • Typical responses to change:

    • Sniff out change early

    • Scurry into action

    • Deny and resist change; fear it will lead to something worse

    • Learn to adapt in time

  • Become a Change ______________

    • (Advocate, Navigator, Catalyst)


Change management
Change Management

  • Generate formal Change Requests

  • Revisit the source of the requirement

  • Involve requirement owner in evaluating the proposed change

  • Cycle back through the phases, beginning with Draft


Traceability for changed requirements
Traceability for Changed Requirements

  • Update the Traceability Matrix to reflect changes to requirements

  • Requirements versioning

  • Document, document, document!

    • Consider dependencies, linked documentation

    • Re-prioritize (if necessary)


Post project uses for traceability
Post-Project Uses for Traceability

  • Obtain sign-off

  • Governance/Steering Committee reviews

  • Project Close-out reports

  • Lessons Learned


In summary
In Summary…

  • Plan the Work, Work the Plan

  • Requirements Attributes are Key

  • Underscoring Traceability: Knowledge is POWER

  • Traceability Matrix = Roadmap for Success


Key learning points1
Key Learning Points

  • Describe requirement attributes, and how they can assist with requirements planning and prioritization

  • Understand how to trace requirements from planning, through design and development, and on into the testing and implementation phases of a project/product

  • Recognize how requirements traceability can facilitate requirements change



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