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The Union in Peril. Conflict Over Status of Territories. Wilmot Proviso (1846) fails to ban slavery from newly acquired Mexican territories Free Soil Movement Party Found support from northern Democrats and Whigs Didn’t demand end to slavery, only spread of slavery.

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Conflict Over Status of Territories

  • Wilmot Proviso (1846) fails to ban slavery from newly acquired Mexican territories

  • Free Soil Movement Party

    • Found support from northern Democrats and Whigs

    • Didn’t demand end to slavery, only spread of slavery


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Conflict Over Status of Territories

  • Southern position: oppose abolitionists, Free Soilers, favor extending 36°30’ westward

  • Popular Sovereignty

    • Lewis Cass, Michigan Democrat… let the people decide


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Conflict Over Status of Territories

  • Election of 1848

    • Democrats nominate Cass

    • Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor

    • Free-Soil Party nominates Martin Van Buren

    • Taylor won because vote siphoned off by Free-Soil party in NY and PA


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Conflict Over Status of Territories

  • Election of 1848

    • Taylor won because vote siphoned off by Free-Soil party in NY and PA


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The Compromise of 1850

  • California joins as free state

  • Utah and New Mexico to join as territories, w/ popular sovereignty

  • Ban slave trade in DC, but allow slavery there

  • Adopt new fugitive slave law

    • All proposed initially by Henry Clay


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The Compromise of 1850

  • Daniel Webster speaks on behalf in order to preserve the Union

  • John C. Calhoun speaks against, insists on Southern territorial rights


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The Compromise of 1850

  • Millard Fillmore succeeds deceased Taylor, supports compromise

  • Stephen A. Douglas gathers support for individual portions of plan


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Agitation Over Slavery

  • Fugitive Slave Law

    • Track down runaway slaves

    • Lack of rights for the accused


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Agitation Over Slavery

  • Underground Railroad


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Agitation Over Slavery - Literature

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe’sUncle Tom’s Cabin


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Agitation Over Slavery - Literature

  • Hinton R. Helper’s nonfiction Impending Crisis of the South


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Agitation Over Slavery - Literature

  • Southern response

    • Slavery positive for masters and slaves

    • Sanctioned by the Bible, history

    • Attacks on northern “wage slaves”

  • Literature & laws polarized the sides


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National Parties in Crisis

  • Election of 1852

    • Dem’s nominated “doughface” Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire

    • Whigs nominated Winfield Scott, ignored slavery

    • Whigs lose big time



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Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

  • Repeals Missouri Compromise

  • Some Northerners sees it as slave power conspiracy


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The Republican Party

  • Know-Nothings surge but fail

  • Republican party forms (1854) as coalition of Free-Soilers, antislavery Whigs, dissatisfied Democrats

  • Oppose extension of slavery



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Extremism & Violence

  • “Bleeding Kansas” – Border Ruffians v. Free-State Warriors


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Extremism & Violence

  • Caning of Senator Sumner


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Constitutional Issues

  • Lecompton Constitution – proslavery constitution of Kansas

  • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)


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Lincoln-Douglas Debates

  • Stephen Douglas debates Abraham Lincoln

  • Slavery key issue




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