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Tools: Data Loggers for Movement and Vocalization. Janeen L. Salak-Johnson, PhD University of Illinois Lecture: April 5, 2007. Why Animal Vocalization and Movement?. 4 “WHYs” in biology (Tinbergen, 1963) Survival value or function Causation Development Evolutionary history

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Tools: Data Loggers for Movement and Vocalization

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Tools data loggers for movement and vocalization l.jpg

Tools: Data Loggers for Movement and Vocalization

Janeen L. Salak-Johnson, PhD

University of Illinois

Lecture: April 5, 2007


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Why Animal Vocalization and Movement?

  • 4 “WHYs” in biology (Tinbergen, 1963)

    • Survival value or function

    • Causation

    • Development

    • Evolutionary history

  • Why do starlings sing in the spring?


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Why Study Animal Locomotion?

  • Function

    • Move for variety of reasons

  • Causation

    • Brain

  • Development

    • Walk, foraging, social

  • Evolutionary history

    • Selection based on necessity or need


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How do we Study Locomotion?

  • Numerous ways

    • Primarily behavioral

  • Must be relevant

    • Question

    • Species

    • Situation (Lab vs. Field)

    • Environment (pen vs. behavioral apparatus)

  • Example

    • Time and energy budgets


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Simple Behavior Monitoring and Sources of Error

Observer Error & Bias

Error of apprehending

Error of recording

Observer Effect

Computational

Error

Results


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Need More Information….

  • Arboreal Primate

    • Support it prefers to move along

    • Height of the forest

    • Types of locomotion

  • Increase information, more specific

  • Complex methodology (i.e., distance/mo.)

    • Map of position at regular intervals (spatial position)

      • Tracking systems – fitted w/ data logging systems w/ GPS

    • Direct reflection of locomotor state of animal

      • Radio collars


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Why do Animals Vocalize?

  • Communication

    • Who? Says What? Which Channel? To Whom? With What Effect?

      • Lasswell’s, 1964 – Message Transmission Theory

  • Signaling

  • Echolation

  • Defensive reactions

  • Mating


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How do Animals Vocalization?

  • Sophisticated vocal system

  • Control -- brainstem centers

    • Input - higher sensory, emotional, & homeostatic regions

      • Sensory cortex, limbic system, and cingulate cortex

      • Mechanism of selection is not well understood

  • Intact midbrain is critical

    • Cats – hissing, howling, growling, meowing

      • Removed telencephalon & diencephalon

      • BUT midbrain – dramatically reduced


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Vocalization a Hallmark of Emotional Reactions?

  • Measure of welfare?

    • Emotional stress and psychological well being

      • Individual

      • Conspecifics

  • Emotional state = vocal pattern?

  • For example,

    • Confined rat – 22 kHZ cry

    • Rhesus macaques – emitting anticipatory “coos”

    • Wild-captured mongoose – “screams”


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Vocalization a Hallmark of Emotional Reactions?

  • Fear, elation, and anger are express via vocalization of these 3 species of captive animals

    • Is this enough to make this statement?

  • What if I told you… ?

  • What if I told you..?

  • What if I told you..?


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Vocalization a Hallmark of Emotional Reactions?

  • What information is absolutely necessary to be able to use vocalizations as a measure of well being?

  • Can vocalization by itself be used as an indicator?

    • Rodent’s cry

    • Monkey’s coos


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Tools: Measure Vocalization

  • Techniques of sound analysis

    • Discriminate

    • Analyze

    • Classify specific vocalizations

  • Records

    • Informatively rich

    • Relatively inexpensive

    • Digital or analog

    • Continuous or discrete time segments

    • Isolated individuals or group


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Tools: Measure Vocalization

  • Data analyzed in variety of ways (dependent upon information desired

    • Frequencies of occurrence

    • Patterns of amplitude and frequency (behavioral and environmental event)

  • Manteuffel et al., 2004. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 88:163-182

    • Procedures used in farm animals bioacoustics

      • Extraction of information

      • Distinguish and characterize


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Tools: Measure Vocalization

  • Microphones, recording devices (human range)

  • Bat detectors

  • UltraVox (Noldus)

    • Measures ultrasonic

    • Low cost

    • Real time

    • Multiple animals

  • Software being developed (Delphi5)


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Data Loggers

  • Advantages

    • Benefits to science and animal welfare

    • Real time and precise location

    • Free ranging animals

    • Less labor, longer duration

    • Less disturbances by observer

    • Less observer error

    • Less variation among observers

    • More data points, more accurate, more reliable?


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Data Loggers - Disadvantages

  • Costly

  • Not always practical

  • Validation, Durability, Repeatability

  • Limitations

    • Information obtained

    • Species practicality

    • Physical impact of device (mass, shape, location)

      • Extra mass – physiological impact (body mass, energy cost)

      • Shape – inappropriate or incorrectly fitted

      • Location – balance


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Data Loggers - Disadvantages

  • Welfare implications

    • Attachment

      • Sutures or glues

      • Color of harnesses, devices and marker (social status or attract predator or prey)

    • Psychological – pain, suffering and distress

      • Capture and handling (wild animals)

      • Physiological impact (more wild than lab) – foraging, grooming

      • Limited monitoring and human intervention

    • Physiological

      • Energetics

      • Performance (diving or breeding)


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Contact logger collars

  • Tracking equipment

    • Activity

    • Mortality

    • Heart rate

    • Temperature

    • Sound

  • Proximity detector – detects when animals come w/in a defined distance of each other


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Actiwatch and ActicalMini Mitter®

  • Actiwatch – non-invasive

    • Track activity levels

      • High sensitivity to small movements

      • High intensity range

    • Track changes in activity patterns (i.e., sleep)

    • Determine circadian rhythms

  • Measure activity and circadian rhythms

    • Food, drugs, pain, health, well-being

  • Activity patterns relative to observe, thus correlate (time and duration)


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Data Loggers: Ethovision (Noldus)

  • http://www.noldus.com/site/content/files/shorttours/ethovision-xt.html

    • See short tour

  • Case studies


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Van Oort et al., 2004. Appl. Anim. Behav. 88:299-308

  • Would it have been important to determine if collar’s interfered with behavior?

  • How could they have assessed?

  • How could they have controlled?


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Van Oort et al., 2004. Appl. Anim. Behav. 88:299-308

  • Is determining active and inactive behavior enough? Why or Why not?

  • Can they use historical data to make the assumption that inactivity is lying and the rest is grazing?

  • How could they have better characterized these behavioral categories?


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Swain and Bishop-Hurley, Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 2007

  • Does data support their conclusion?

    • “Contact logging devices have the potential to provide useful data on animal affiliations?

  • What other information would have enabled them to better quantify cow-calf interactions?

  • Page 9 -


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