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The Coming of the Civil War. The Slave South in the 19th Century. Similarities between N. and S. ancestry, religion, language, rural, both participate in nat’l econ. and pol. Old South Social Structure 75% white households owned no slaves those who did most 1-4 slaves

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The Slave South in the 19th Century

  • Similarities between N. and S.

    • ancestry, religion, language,

    • rural, both participate in nat’l econ. and pol.

  • Old South Social Structure

    • 75% white households owned no slaves

    • those who did most 1-4 slaves

    • planters those with more than 20 slaves (3%)

    • most slaves on plantations


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Slave Resistance

  • Nat Turner’s Rebellion (1831)

  • Historical Interpretations of Slave Rebellions

    • slavery mild

    • slavery brutal and dehumanizing

    • structural issues like b/w ratio, small size of slaveholdings; community and family


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Rise of Antislavery Movement

  • American Colonization Society (1817)

    • address fear of Af-Amer. being free

    • expensive and few free blacks willing

  • Free Black Abolitionism

    • racial assumptions of ACS

    • attack northern racism also

    • newspapers and organizations

James

Forten


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Abolitionism and American Historians

  • Northern v. Southern Historians

    • Northern: abolitionists courageous for attacking immoral system

    • Southern school blamed abolitionists for war

      • Fanatics; hypocritical since many didn’t believe in b/w equality

  • Civil Rights Era

    • Inc sympathy with abolitionists / racial egalitarians

    • Yet still stuck in good/bad dichotomy

  • Last few decades expanded focus on other factors including religion, capitalism and free labor ideology, black abolitionists, and gender


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Garrison and the Liberator

  • Earlier arguments against abolition

    • prop. rts.; threatened nation’s stability

    • impact of large landless black pop.

  • Garrison and Immediatism

    • ignore extraneous issues

    • impact of free black abolition

    • 2nd Great Awakening and sin of slavery

    • moral suasion


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Abolitionist Movement

  • American Antislavery Society (1833)

    • racial, gender, and class ideas

  • Free Soil Party

    • moral suasion was anti-political/anti-violence

    • aimed to keep fed. Territories for free whites

      • stop expansion of slavery and it will die

    • Slave Power conspiracy


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Proslavery Thought

  • Jefferson and “Necessary Evil”

    • a troubled slaveowner

  • Why was it a Necessary Evil?

    • Concerned about Haiti revol.

    • Life as a Virginian

    • liberty and property linked

    • property rights of slaveowners


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A Positive Good

  • Origins

    • response to abolitionists

  • Slavery and Religion

    • condoned by bible

    • social system and sin

  • Slaves incapable of freedom

    • plantation a school

    • civilized slaves


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Positive Good on the Attack

  • Slavery permitted expansion of American culture

  • All men not created equal

  • Slavery v. free labor working-class in North

  • Scientific Racism

    • polygenesis and Samuel Morton

    • challenged religion’s authority

  • Slavery and poor white democracy

craniometer


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Civil War and Historians

  • Nationalist school reflected growing American nationalism by 1900

    • Consequences of end of slavery contributed to growing American power

      • Slavery basic cause, it was immoral; yet some saw some good things in southern culture

      • Its destruction set conditions for industrialization

  • Progressives condemned results of the war in that it installed ruthless, ambitious capitalists and debate over slavery just masked this

  • Southern school likewise pictured 19th century industrialists as evil and blamed them for war yet celebrated southern culture and society

  • Revisionists of 30s and 40s tended to argue that war was avoidable but political failure

  • Civil Rights era encouraged historians to take slavery seriously and war largely unavoidable

    • Included emphasis on free labor ideas and focus on west as cause

  • Last decades has enhanced understanding by exploring comparative studies, gender, and important efforts and role of African Americans, free and slave


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Emerging Sectionalism

  • Constitution and Slavery

  • Missouri Compromise (1820)

    • Missouri petitions to be slave state

    • battle over Congress’ control over statehood

    • MO as slave, Maine as free

    • 36-30 line defines future status of slavery in federal territories


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Slavery in the Age of Abolitionism

  • Nullification Crisis (1832)

    • Tariffs of Abomination

    • Calhoun’s SC Exposition and Protest (1828)

      • nation a compact of states

      • state’s could nullify fed. Laws/ state’s rights

      • Jackson and Force Bill

John C. Calhoun


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Slavery in the Age of Abolitionism

  • Gag Rule (1836)

    • Congress tables all antislavery petitions

    • another example of Slave Power conspiracy


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Slavery and Western Expansion

  • South’s Ideology of Expansion

    • helps southern econ.

    • Reduces b/w ratio

    • safety valve for nonslaveholders

    • maintains balance of free/slave states


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Mexican-American War

  • Wilmot Proviso--ban slavery in new lands

  • Compromise of 1850

    • CA as free state; the rest popular sovereignty

    • abolish slave trade in DC; Fugitive Slave Act


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Lincoln and Slavery

  • From Whig Party to Republican Party

    • free labor; self-improvement

    • economic progress; oppose slavery

  • Lincoln and Slavery

    • b and w not socially equal

    • supported colonization

    • believed gov’t could stop expansion of slavery

      • cannot be “half slave or half free”

Lincoln in 1840s


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Popular Sovereignty

  • Pop. Sov.: let people in territory decide

    • supported by Northern Democrats

    • seemed democratic

    • kept N. and S. Democrats together

  • Bleeding Kansas

    • reopened slavery debate and ignored MO. Comp.

    • Pop. Sov. led to bloodbath over future of states

Ruins of Lawrence, KS


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Dred Scott Decision (1857)

  • Supreme Court case to decide slavery

  • Did moving to free state make slave free?

  • Court ruled against Scott

    • Scott couldn’t sue because a slave

    • blacks, free or slave, not citizens and no rights

    • MO. Comp. unconstitutional because violates right to property

  • Spurred abolitionists


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Lincoln and 1860 Election

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

    • shaped by Scott decision

    • Freeport Doctrine: deny legal framework to protect slaveowners and slavery won’t last


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Lincoln and 1860 Election

  • 1860 Election

    • Democrats split into N. and S. wings

    • Lincoln wins with 39% of vote

  • Secession and Fort Sumter (4/12/61)


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