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Task Force Group on Identification and Assessment of Recommended Practices for the Design of Internet Surveys. Task Force Members

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Task Force Group onIdentification and Assessment of Recommended Practices for the Design of Internet Surveys

Task Force Members

Curtin, R. (University of Michigan, United States), De Greef, I. (Bank of Belgium), Etter, R. (KOF / ETZ, Switzerland), Malgarini, M. (ISAE, Italy), Neubarth, W. (ZUMA, Germany), Scherrer, P. (INSEE, France), Stangl, A. (Ifo Institute, Germany), Wood, J. (CBI, United Kingdom), European Commission, OECD

internet users per 100 inhabitants by country income level

Time-lag (ca. 45 months)

Web as Survey Medium

Internet users per 100 inhabitants, by country-income level

80

70

Country Groups

High income

Upper middle

60

Lower middle

Low income

50

40

30

20

10

0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Source:

adapted from OECD Communications Outlook 2005

characteristics of internet surveys
Characteristics of Internet surveys

SPECIFICS

  • Web as a survey medium
  • Sources of the coverage and measurement error
  • Users’ specifics: hardware and software
  • Validity and reliability issues
  • Data security
  • User friendliness
  • ADVANTAGES
  • Material savings
  • Postal expenditure
  • Archive requirements
  • Lower marginal costs
  • Accessibility around the clock
  • No interviewer bias
  • Positive effect on the surveyor’s image
coverage problems
Coverage Problems

Percentage of Businesses Using the Internet by Number of Employees

10-49

50-249

250 and more

%

100

90

80

70

60

50

UK

Italy

Japan

Spain

Ireland

Mexico

Austria

Canada

Norway

Greece

Finland

Portugal

Sweden

Denmark

Germany

Australia

Czech Rep.

Switzerland

Netherlands

New Zealand

Luxembourg

2001 or latest available year

Source: OECD

survey mode preferences among international business survey participants
Survey-Mode Preferences Among International Business Survey Participants

Fax

Web

E-mail

70%

60%

50%

55%

51%

46%

44%

40%

44%

41%

40%

39%

38%

30%

34%

34%

32%

26%

28%

20%

9%

10%

0%

<34

35-44

45-54

55-65

>66

Age Group

N=433, multiple-choice

Source:

Ifo Institute for Economic Research (2004): Ifo World Economic Survey

mixed mode surveys
Mixed Mode Surveys

ADVANTAGES

  • Respondents can choose the mode
  • Allows a stepwise adoption of the Internet
  • Different modes function as “soft” reminders

DATA QUALITY

  • Differences in item non-response, validity, reliability

Differently designed questionnaires may result in systematic measurement errors

item non response
Item Non-response

Lower item non-response for Web surveys

!

On-line participants tend to be less thorough

  • Internet is perceived to be anonymous
  • Lower perception of responsibility
  • On-line readers are less patient
  • Internet usage is associated with costs
dial up and broadband shares 2003
Dial-up and Broadband Shares, 2003

Broadband

Dial-up

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%

Italy

Spain

Korea

Japan

Austria

Mexico

Ireland

Finland

Poland

Turkey

Belgium

Iceland

France

Norway

OECD

EU-15

Portugal

Australia

Greece

Hungary

Sweden

Canada

Denmark

Germany

Switzerland

Luxembourg

Netherlands

United States

New Zealand

United Kingdom

Slovak Republic

Czech Republic

Source:

OECD Communications Outlook 2005

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Validity – Differences in Responses

  • Findings vary greatly

Balances of the assessments of the present economic situation (IT companies)

70

60

Total Panel

Web Respondents

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

-20

-30

Q2/2000

Q3/2000

Q4/2000

Q1/2001

Q2/2001

Q3/2001

Q4/2001

Q1/2002

Q2/2002

Q3/2002

Q4/2002

Q1/2003

Q2/2003

Q3/2003

Q4/2003

Q1/2004

Q2/2004

Q1/2000

-40

Selection bias may influence responses

reliabilty
Reliabilty

Higher risk of measurement errors

  • Internet respondents tend to read more quickly
  • Internet environment may lead to a higher inaccuracy
  • Respondent has to learn the structure of the hypertext
  • Internet questionnaires affords higher cognitive effort

Prevention and Control

Personal contact

Design

Instructions

optical design
Optical Design

DOs

  • Welcome and attractive screen
  • Different forms for different questions
  • Minimize visible control functions
  • Multi-page design for automatic skipping
  • Use only the central part of the screen

DON’Ts

  • Matrix questions
  • Drop-down menus
  • Pop-up questions
  • Sideward scrolling

WebSM

Web Survey Methodology

www.WebSM.org

practical issues spam
Practical Issues: SPAM
  • Address list cleanliness
  • Ask your participants to place your e-mail address in their address book
  • Adhere to a widely accepted format (plain-text format)
  • Avoid using bought-in e-mail lists
  • Avoid spammy-sounding words in your e-mail
  • Use a recognizable, short, and consistent “From” Address.
  • Test your e-mail campaign

Permanent challenge

slide13

Practical Issues: Security

Security breaches can appear:

  • Unauthorized subjects try to access sensitive information
  • Cyber-criminals and hackers
  • Viruses and Spyware
  • Security breaches during the data transmission

Effective security policy

effective security policy
Effective security policy

!

  • Create awareness of possible risks
  • Anti-Virus and anti-Trojans software
  • A strong Firewall
  • SSL / TLS
internet surveys of the future
Internet Surveys of the Future
  • Conception
  • Higher Internet Competence
  • Adoption
  • Training
  • DSL
  • Technical Progress
  • Higher screen
  • resolution
  • Advanced design

techniques

  • Fingerprint
  • TSL
  • New Security Generation
broadband internet connections
Broadband Internet Connections

Internet subscribers

(Millions)

300

Total Internet subscribers (including broadband)

250

Broadband subscribers

200

150

100

50

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Source:

OECD Communications Outlook 2005

quality of service improvements
Quality of Service Improvements

Faults per 100 lines per year

70

1990

2003

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Spain

Korea

Ireland

Turkey

Mexico

Portugal

Greece

Hungary

Canada

Switzerland

United Kingdom

new instruments graphic scales

50%

15%

40%

10%

30%

Percent

Percent

20%

5%

10%

0%

good

bad

satisfactory

satisfactory

good

bad

Present Economic Situation (Categories)

Present Economic Situation (Visual Analog Scale)

New Instruments – Graphic Scales

Categories

Visual Analog

Scales

bad

satisfactory

good

bad

satisfactory

good

¨

¨

¨

task force outlook
Task Force Outlook
  • Exchange experience
  • Contrast recommendations and practice
  • Design
  • Data quality
  • Contact with participants
  • Technical issues
  • Learn from each other
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Thank You!

Email: Ronny Nilsson [email protected]

Anna Stangl [email protected]

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