Shared knowledge for decision making on environment and health issues in the arctic
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Shared Knowledge for Decision-Making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic. Nancy G. Maynard, Ph.D. Associate Director, Environment & Health NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Boris S. Yurchak, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist, Goddard Earth Sciences & Technology Center

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Shared Knowledge for Decision-Making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

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Shared Knowledge for Decision-Making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

Nancy G. Maynard, Ph.D.

Associate Director, Environment & Health

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Boris S. Yurchak, Ph.D.

Senior Research Scientist, Goddard Earth Sciences & Technology Center

Johan Mathis Turi

President, Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH)

October 28, 2003

RADARSAT

Global View of the Arctic Ocean

Credit : NASA JPL, University of Alaska - Fairbanks


“…to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is integrated into the management of the natural environment in the Arctic.”

Johan Mathis Turi

President, Association of World Reindeer Herders

2002


Outline of Talk

  • Integrating Traditional Knowledge into the Management of the Natural Environment in the Arctic

  • The Issue

  • Primary Factors Impacting Health of Indigenous Peoples of the North

  • What is “Reindeer Mapper” (RM)

  • Why NASA

  • The RM System for Shared Knowledge for Decision-making

  • Reindeer Mapper Project – Status


The Issue

  • Drastic changes in the economy, climate and environment creating critical situations in reindeer husbandry

  • The health and well-being of indigenous peoples (reindeer herders) of the Russian North are directly dependent upon the state of reindeer husbandry

    • Social: Economic & Cultural Impacts – Reindeer Herders

      • Health Care Problems: Lack of access to healthcare and other services (country economics)

    • Climate/Environment Impact – Reindeer and Herders

      • Changes in snow/ice cover/permafrost/freeze-thaw and availability/quality of pastures and forage; interrupted migration routes; increased insect harassment

      • Loss of pasture land due to industrial developments (e.g. oil and gas pipelines)

      • Contamination of pastures, snow, ground, lakes, river waters (mining, pollution)

      • Increasing number of predators

    • Education Issues

      • Lack of access to education/schools/materials for reindeer herders’ children so that they can remain with family/herders but still obtain education (policies, resources)


Remote Sensing (RS) Indicators of Human Health Related Problems

Caused by Environmental Factors

Caused by Social Factors

Human Health

Human Health

  • Family

  • Employment

  • Habitation

  • Food

  • Healthcare

  • Spare time

  • Rest

Physical

Biological

Conditions of Life

Environmental Factor(s)

Social Factor(s)

Indicator Phenomena

Indicator Phenomena

RS Detection

RS detection


Main Factors Impacting the Health of Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North

Access to Healthcare

Health of Indigenous Peoples of Russian North

Life Style

Diet Style and Social-Culture Behavior

VeterinaryServices

Reindeer Husbandry state

Social-Economic State of People

Anthropogenic Factors

Forms of Ownership and Management

Ecological Factors

Climate Change

Area of NASA’s

possible contribution


What Is ReindeerMapper?

Management Support System for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry

Purpose of ReindeerMapper

This system is to bring indigenous traditional and local knowledge together with scientific and engineering knowledge, remote sensing and information technologies to address environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision making for sustainable reindeer husbandry and as a bottom line - to improve the quality of life of reindeer herders.


Decision

Support

Making

Subsystem

(DMSS)

Management Support System ”ReindeerMapper”

Other related information

Remote Sensing Information

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

GIS

Decision Maker


Management Support System “ReindeerMapper“(Remote Sensing Components)

  • Land observing satellites

    • Platforms: circular, sun-synchronous orbit

    • Sensors: multispectral radiometers with middle/high spatial resolution; passive microwave radiometer; synthetic aperture radar

  • Satellite Telemetry System

RS Measurement

-GIS

- DMSS

Information-analytical

Educational

- Communication system

  • LEVELS OF REINDEER HUSBANDRY MANAGEMENT

  • - LOCAL

  • REGIONAL

  • FEDERAL

Reindeer Husbandry Management


Management Data Gaps for Domesticated Reindeers of Northern Russia

  • Condition of pastures

    • Forage stock

    • Overgrazing

    • Contamination

    • Fire scars

  • Snow cover parameters

  • Permafrost

  • State of annual migration pathways

    • Ice conditions, lakes, rivers, etc.

    • Anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. oil and gas infrastructure- pipelines, drill sites; oil/contaminants spills; fire scars etc.)

    • Meteorological conditions

  • Wild reindeer herds locations


WhyNASA? – Technology Possibilities

NASA could provide user-friendly, regularly-updated, remotely sensed, information on a number of critical parameters and changes (to be combined with TK and local information) for more informed herd management:

  • Depth and characteristics of snow cover in traditional and new migration routes of herds

  • Condition of ice on rivers and other water bodies in migratory routes

  • Ecological characterization of traditional summer and winter pastures and annual migration routes – and assessment of their ecological suitability as pasture

  • Assessment of anthropogenic impacts on migration routes and pasture lands of interest, including environmental contamination and infrastructure development

  • Detection, monitoring, and status of annual forest fires and associated burned areas in pasture and migration areas of interest

  • Development of techniques for monitoring favorable conditions for growth of mosquitoes (and other blood-sucking insects) relevant to potential for reindeer harassment and spread of infectious diseases

  • Seasonal assessment of migratory routes for herds


Satellite & Sensor: Terra- MODIS

Example of Fire Detection by MODIS

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite of western Russia, 4 September 2002

Heat signatures (red) and smoke plumes (light blue haze) are visible from the fires. True-color image by Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), resolution 250m.

Source: NASA Earth Observatory

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=4743

Credit: Image by Jesse Allen, based on data from the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA-GSFC


Example of SAR Detection of a Forest Fire Scar

ERS-1 SAR scene (08/23/91) of the Bettles region, located about 290 km NNW of Fairbanks. A forest fire scar resulting from a fire in 1990 is visible due to its strong backscatter/bright tone. (Alaska SAR Facility ERS-1 SAR Image Sampler, 2001)


Credit: Eric R. Conrad, Deputy, Field Operations

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection


GIS Research Centre, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences

Goddard

Space

Flight

Center

Association of World Reindeer Herders

Data Acquisition

Reindeer Mapper System Concept

Partner Web

  • Reindeer Herder Data/Knowledge

  • Remote Sensing/Science and Technology, Data and Information

  • Other Information/Sources

  • Reindeer Mapper Team

Reindeer Mapper

GIS

Database

Conference “Center”

  • World Center for Sustainable Reindeer Herding

  • Teleconferences

Data Integration

Communication/Outreach

Traditional/Local Knowledge/Data

Maps/Reports

and Analysis

NASA/

Remote Sensing Data

Knowledge transfer between traditional/

local knowledge and scientific knowledge

  • Historical

  • Real Time

Arctic Data Archives

Arctic Science Institutions


Reindeer Mapper (RM): Initial Steps in Creating a Shared Knowledge System for Decision-Making

  • Selection of Highest Priority Pilot Project Test Sites

  • Acquisition of data from all sources (field observations, RS, etc.)

  • Development of GIS for Pilot Project Test Sites

  • Integration of information from all RM partners into common GIS

    • Reindeer Herders

    • NASA and other remote sensing sources

    • Other data sources

  • Adaptation of existing NASA GIS based system which facilitates the sharing the diverse data sets by all participants which also allows real time access and interconnectivity with remote sites

  • Develop data base and archive for current and historical data, observations, and knowledge for parameters of interest


For further information:

Dr. Nancy G. Maynard

Associate Director

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Mail Code 900

Greenbelt, MD 20771

Tel: (301) 614-6572

email: Nancy.G. Maynard@nasa.gov

Dr. Boris Yurchak

Senior Research ScientistGoddard Earth Sciences & Technology Center (GEST), Mail Code 900

NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbelt, MD 20771 USATel:(301) 614-5898

email: boris_yurchak@hotmail.com

Johan Mathis Turi,President

Association of World Reindeer Herders

Gronnegata 23

P.O. Box 508

N-9255 Tromsø, Norway

Tel: +47 77 656 400

email: wrh.jmt@online.no

RADARSAT

Global View of the Arctic Ocean

Credit : NASA JPL, University of Alaska - Fairbanks


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