Newspaper. By : MONA, NOUF, WESAM, ETAAB. Presentation outline. 1. newspaper brief history. 2. Types of news paper 3. Head lines *types of head lines and examples. *Differences between head lines. Newspaper history.
MONA, NOUF, WESAM, ETAAB
1. newspaper brief history.
2. Types of news paper
3. Head lines
*types of head lines and examples.
*Differences between head lines
For centuries, civilizations have used print media to spread news and information to the masses. The Roman Acta Diurna, appearing around 59 B.C, is the earliest recorded “newspaper”. Julius Caesar, wanting to inform the public about important social and political happenings, ordered upcoming events posted in major cities. Written on large white boards and displayed in popular places like the Baths, the Acta kept citizens informed about government scandals, military campaigns, trials and executions. In 8th century China, the first newspapers appeared as hand-written newsheets in Beijing.
The printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1447, ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenberg’s machine enabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge -- themes that would define Renaissance Europe. During this era, newsletters supplied a growing merchant class with news relevant to trade and commerce. Manuscript newssheets were being circulated in German cities by the late 15th century. These pamphlets were often highly sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans in Transylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad TsepesDrakul, also known as Count Dracula. In 1556 the Venetian government published Notizie scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or “gazetta”.
In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern newspapers were products of western European countries like Germany (publishing Relation in 1605), France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette, founded in 1665, is still published as a court journal). These periodicals consisted mainly of news items from Europe, and occasionally included information from America or Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead English papers reported on French military blunders while French papers covered the latest British royal scandal.
Newspapers can be divided into two sorts: broadsheets, and tabloids.
Broadsheet newspapers are the large ones (e.g. The Times and The Daily Telegraph)
Tabloid newspapers are the small ones (e.g. The Sun andThe Daily Mirror).
You may have discovered the following things:
4. Many articles have pictures to go with them; the writing under a picture is called a caption
5. Articles are often split into sections by subheadings ; often these are just one word.
6. Articles often include interviews with people involved in the incident.
Most of the articles you see in The Dispatch are news articles. News articles focus only on the facts <ETH> they don't contain anyone's opinion There are several types of news articles.
A local news article focuses on what's going on in your neighborhood. An example of a local news story would be an article on a city council meeting.
A national news article focuses on what's happening in the United States. An example of a national news article would be an article on the U.S. Senate passing a new bill.
An international news article focuses on news that's happening outside the United States. A story on an influenza outbreak in Chile would be considered an international news story.
A feature article is an article that is about "softer" news. A feature may be a profile of a person who does a lot of volunteer work in the community or a movie preview. Feature articles are not considered news stories.
An editorial is an article that contains the writer's opinion. Editorials are usually run all together on a specific page of the paper and focus on current events. Editorials are not considered news stories.
A column is an article written by the same person on a regular basis. A columnist (the writer of the column) writes about subjects of interest to him/her, current events or community happenings. Columns are not considered news stories.
1. Get the reader's attention quickly. • Start with a well thought-out first paragraph touching on some aspect of the person's life that you are writing about or the event if it is not a person. • Good feature stories have a beginning that draws in readers, a transition that might repeat it in the middle and an ending that refers to the beginning.
2.Organize your story carefully. • Feature stories can be told in narrative fashion or by sliding from event to event even though not in chronological order. Use careful transitions to maintain the flow of the story if you're not going to follow chronological order.
3. Use short paragraphs effect and vary the lengths of sentences for.• Reading sentences and paragraphs that are always the same length gets boring.
4. Write with strong verbs and nouns, but go easy on adjectives. • Try to draw a picture of your subject or event through your writing. Read the sentences below and think about which paints a better picture for your reader: The man was tall. The man's head almost brushed against the eight foot ceiling in the room. The ship sank in 1900. The ship sank just as the first intercontinental railroad was nearing completion.
5.Don't be afraid to use offbeat quotes. • Not profanity, but rather witty things the person may say in response to a question about their success, life or family.
6. Write tightly.• You do not need to tell the reader everything you know on a subject or event. Tell only the most important things. It's better to write shorter than longer. A good feature can be done in 500-750 words
Feature articles are nonfiction articles that intend to inform, teach, or amuse the reader on a topic. The topic centers around human interests. Feature stories may include conventions found in fiction such as dialogue, plot and character. A feature article is an umbrella term that includes many literary structures: personality sketches, essays, how-to's, interviews and many others.The following are examples of feature articles:
Articles can be divided into two main categories: news and features. Straight news stories deal with the timeliness and immediacy of breaking news, while feature articles are news stories that deal with human interest topics.
A NEWS article is an article published in a print or Internetnews medium such as a newspaper, newsletter, news magazine, or news-oriented website that discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or on a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites).
Characteristics of well-written articles
Body of feature article
Body of news story
News writing tends to be:
Stylistic features of headlines:
Cliché" applies also to almost any situation, plot device, subject, characterization, figure of speech, or object—in short, any sign—that has become overly familiar or commonplace.
Because the novelty or frequency of an expression's use varies across different times and places, whether or not it is a cliché depends largely on who uses it, the context in which it is used, and who is making the judgment.
The meaning of a particular cliché may shift over time, often leading to confusion or misuse
It is a cliché that most clichés are true, but then, like most clichés, that cliché is untrue.
A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. It also may be a substitution of a description of something or someone rather than the name, to avoid revealing secret, holy, or sacred names to the uninitiated, or to obscure the identity of the subject of a conversation from potential eavesdroppers. Some euphemisms are intended to be funny
Irony is a literary or rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or discordance between what a speaker or a writer says and what he or she means, or is generally understood.
In modern usage it can also refer to particularly striking examples of incongruities observed in everyday life between what was intended or said and what actually happened.
There is some argument about what is or is not ironic, but all the different senses of irony revolve around the perceived notion of an incongruity between what is said and what is meant; or between an understanding of reality, or an expectation of a reality, and what actually happens.
Irony can be funny, but it does not have to be.
METAPHORThe user interface of newspapers has been developed and standardized throughout centuries. Despite sociological differences, publishers and editors from different parts of the world can meet to discuss the content, role, and technology of newspapers--just as readers from different parts of the world can pick up a local paper and immediately know how to read it if the written language is known. The different elements of the newspaper interface are collectively known as the "newspaper metaphor". It is important to understand how the various elements of the newspaper work together before trying to transcode them into new media The front page is the most distinct feature of the newspaper format. It was invented 300 years ago.
pun (or paronomasia) is a phrase that deliberately exploits confusion between similar-sounding words for humorous or rhetorical effect.
A pun may also cause confusion between two senses of the same written or spoken word, due to homophony, homography, homonymy, polysemy, or metaphorical usage. Walter Redfern has said: "To pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms". For example, in the phrase, "There is nothing punny about bad puns", the pun takes place in the deliberate confusion of the implied word "funny" by the substitution of the word "punny", a heterophone of "funny". By definition, puns must be deliberate; an involuntary substitution of similar words is called a malapropism.
Puns are a form of word play, and occur in all languages, with the exception of Lojban.
Example : out out out .
Example: kiss for Harry as he meets pop idols.
Example: villagers sick as a parrot.