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Ponència A. La Qualitat a l’ensenyament dins Europa Una visió dels diferents sistemes de gestió de centres educatius de Dinamarca, Andalusia, País Basc i Europa en general. IV Jornada de Qualitat a l’ensenyament i intercanvi d’experiències Barcelona, 18 de novembre de 2004. Philip Pedersen

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Ponència A

La Qualitat a l’ensenyament dins EuropaUna visió dels diferents sistemes de gestió de centres educatius de Dinamarca, Andalusia, País Basc i Europa en general

IV Jornada de Qualitat a l’ensenyament

i intercanvi d’experiències

Barcelona, 18 de novembre de 2004

Philip Pedersen

Inspector General del Ministeri d’Educació de Dinamarca


Presentation at ConferenceMinistry of Education, CataloniaBarcelona 18th of November 2004v. Philip Pedersen +45 3392 5709, philip.pedersen@uvm.dk

  • Topic:

  • Quality Assurance in Europe and Denmark:

  • The Present and Future.

  • Why focus on quality assurance?

  • How to work with quality assurance?

  • Point for reflection – based on the Danish experience

  • What to come: at European and national level?


1.Why focus on quality assurance?

...at European and national level?


European cooperation

Lisbon, 2000, European Council:

“European as the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy

in the world in 2010, capable of economic growth and greater social cohesion”

Barcelona-resolution, 2002, European Council:

Making Europeans education/training system a world quality reference by

2010 with 3 targets:

  • promote quality and efficiency in education

  • make access to the education system easier

  • open up educational systems to a wider world

Coordinated with the Bologna declaration: Higher Educ.1999


The needs and objectives, 2001

  • Life Long Learning: To link and combine different learning

  • outcomes

  • Mobility: To earn and use qualifications and competences as a

  • common currency (common qualification framework)

  • To have high quality qualifications which have standing in an

  • international market

  • European employment strategy:The need to focus on trans-

  • parency, recognition, and quality, and to develop mutual trust


The Brügge and Copenhagen-process

The Copenhagen declaration, nov. 2002:

Enhanced cooperation in Vocational Education and Training.

The aim is to enhance mutual trust, transparency and recognition of

qualifications and competences in order to promote mobility and

access to life long learning.

Cooperation based on “The Open Method of Coordination”

  • Organized in 3 working groups:

  • Transparency, information and guidance

  • Recognition af competences and qualifications

  • Quality assurance


The Copenhagen-process and Quality

Promoting cooperation in quality assurance with special focus

in exchange of models, and methodes, as well as a common

criteria and principles for qiuality in vocational education and

training

Giving attention to the learning needs of teachers and trainers

witin all form of vocational education and training


2. How to work with quality assurance?

...at European level


Why focus on Quality Assurance?

  • Quality assurance is not a need in it self!

  • Quality assurance is a means of:

  • enhancing educational quality

  • getting better knowledge of national standard and quality

  • creating a better basis for benchmarking

  • contributing to more transparency

  • Ambition:

  • To contribute to Mutual Trust between the nations

  • and enhance mobility in Europe.


Common Quality Assurance Framework

A model:

For quality assurance based on the Quality Circle to be used at system level and institutional level

Methodology:

For assesment and review of systems: self-assesment (guide) to be combined with external evaluation

Measurement tools:

A set of reference indicators based on 3 European objectives in order to monitoring af evaluate their own system

Monitoring system:

To be identified as appropriate at national or regional level, and possibly combined with voluntatry peer review


Common Quality Assurance Framework =C QAF

Planning

(Purpuse and plan)

Methodology

Review (feedback and

procedures for change)

Implementation

Evaluation and Assessment


Objectives and indicators

1.Unemployability according to groups

2.Participation rate in IVET and LLL

3. Succesfull completion rate of training

1.Employability

4.Schemes to promote better acces

5.Prevalence of vulnerable groups:

participation/completion/employability

2.Access

6.Mechanisms to relate developments in labour-

market VET-systems

7.Destination of trainees 6 month after training

8.Utilisation of acquired skills at the work place

3. Matching

supply/demand

4. Quality M

systems

9. Share of VET-providers applying Quality

10.Management systems like CQAF

Investment in training of teachers


3.Points for reflection

based on the Danish

approach to quality assurance


Points for Focus – based on Danish experiences

1.Centralised vs. Decentralised educational system

2.Voluntary or obligatory quality assurance

3.Involvement of Stakeholders: social partners/trainees,students

4. Internal vs. External evaluation

5. Check and balance vs. Control

6.Transparency: More or less transparent processes and

results (output/outcomes)


The Danish Educational System


DK – small is maybe not always beautiful but…

2000 Primary and lower secondary Schools

157 Gymnasier

=General Upper Secondary Education

25 Social and

Health Colleges

17 Agricultural

Colleges

47 Technical Colleges

48 Commercial Colleges

TREND:

FEWER

10 with Technical + Commercial


DK: 3 basic principles

Preliminary

Pragmatic

Pluralistic


View of development af quality assurance, DK

Consequence:

Political agreement: VET 2003-06

Regulation: Openness and transparency 2002

Implementation:

Regulation on quality: VET, 2000

Q-questionaire 1998

Common references:

Q-90 1996-97 (project)

Q-strategi 1995

The first steps:

Local initiatives

Research and dev. projects


DK: Approaches to Quality assurance, 2004

5. Quality rules

1.Common guidelines

6. The Danish Eval. Institute

2.Testing and examination

Approach to

Quality Assurance

and Development

7. Transparency and openness

3.Ministerial appro- val and inspection

8.International surveys

4. Involvement of stakeholders

9. Output management


CQAF and Danish quality approach

1.Common guidelines

4.Involvement of Stakeholders

Plan

Methodology

Q-regulation:

Selfevaluation

Review (feedback +

procedures for change)

Implementation

4.Stakeholders/3.Min. Approval+inspection/ 9.Output/outcomes/7.Transparency+Openess

4.Involvement of stakholders/

9.Innovationa + devel. projects

Evaluation and Assessment

4.Involvement of stakeholders/3.Min. Approval and inspection/2.Examination/6.EVA


Quality rules in VET, 2000/2004

PART 1

In-company training

Follow up on the in-company training

by Trade Committes


Quality rules in VET, 2000/04

Part 2: School education:

1. The College must have a quality-system for quality improvement and

the achievement of the education

2. The College must have a procedure for self-evaluation and quality-development:

a. The teaching fulfils the goals of the education (VET)

b. On-going development of the local educational plan

c. Method of teaching must support the goals of the education and the subjects

d. Practical training and theoretical training must support each other

e. Teachers: professional (subjects and method) updating

f. The colleges get the students’ assesment of teaching and local educational planning

g. External examiner comments, results on marks and assesment of teaching must be

included

h. Individual plans for every student/trainee based on their conditions and needs

3. On the basis of a self-evaluation the College must make a plan for followup,

need of changes: solutions and operational targets - and put on the College’s web


Danish Evaluation Institute, 1999

  • Evaluations:

  • participation obligatory

  • selfevaluation obligatory

  • respect for local practices

  • reports public

  • no ranking

  • Independent:

  • methods for evaluation

  • evaluation group

  • not authority, not supervision

PRINCIPLES:

  • Organisation:

  • independent, governmental

  • institution

  • independent board and council

  • separated from Ministry

  • Minister of Educ.:

  • appoint chairman/board

  • approve: director + action plan

  • responsability: follow up


Danish Evaluation Institute 1 (1999)

Danish Evaluation Institute, 1999

AIM: to secure and develop quality in education and teaching/learning

  • Focus on development and quality assurance of:

  • programmes and teaching/learning

  • could be: an institution’s total performance

  • control with the institutions is not a point

  • dialogue with the Ministry of Education

  • National centre of knowledge:

  • develop methods for evaluation

  • nationally/internationally

  • center for information

  • Type of evaluations:

  • on EVA’s initiatives

  • obligatory: Student grants

  • requested evaluations


Danish Evaluation Institute 3 (1999)

Example of evaluations 2002-2004: www.eva.dk

  • Student in Voc. Upper Sec. Educ. Preparation for further

    education

  • Teachers’ further education and training in VET-colleges

  • The VET-trainees’ personal educational plan

  • Quality assurance in VET by involvement of social partners (2004)

  • Subject: English in primary schools

  • Subject: English in upper secondary educ. at level A and B

  • Education of teachers for Primary Schools

  • University: Faculty evaluation of German-studies

  • University: ”Basis-educ.” in social science at to Universities


Transparency and openness (2002)

  • The instistutions are obliged to public on their web-site:

  • The supply of education and programmes

  • The pedagogical foundation of values and educational principles

  • The average of the final grades

  • The results of the evaluations of the teaching

  • Information which the school finds essential for the assesment of

  • the teaching supplied.

  • All areas of education and all types of institutions are included. The

  • Law is formulated in a general way, but has been adjusted to ”language”

  • and the practise of each area of education.


Transparency and openness (2002)

  • The purpose of the law:

  • To give the users: pupils, students, parents and managements transparent and relevant information

  • To give the educational institutions a possibility to share ideas and experience

  • To give the public (politicians/organisations) an impression of the quality etc. of the institutions and the educational systems.

  • Principles for information on college web-sites:

  • Easy accessible, manageable and of current interest

  • Comparative

  • Providable without huge costs for the colleges


Bench marking betweeen schools, an ex.

Network between 7 business colleges based on agreed principles, methodes and questions put to 764 students

Note: 6= just passed; 8=avarage performance, 13 = excellent performance


Output Management, 2003

An Agreement in Parliament for 4 years: ”The institutions get value for money”

IMPLEMENTATION

  • Completion of part of or the full education

  • Practical training places

    QUALITY DEVELOPMENT SUBSIDY

  • Qualification development of teachers

  • School contact with local enterprices and community

  • Systematic quality development- Professionally e.g. final grades, evaluations- Flexibility e.g. individual credits

  • Professional management by staff

    From 2003-06 also grants for:

  • Every student completing his/her program

  • Documetation of quality on selected themes


CQAF and Danish quality approach

Plan for evaluations next year:public

Planning

(Purpuse and plan)

Methodology

Implementation

Review (feedback and

procedures for change)

Plan for follow up next year

Supervision of performance

Evaluation and Assessment

Output: results, public


4.What to come?

at European and national level?


What to come?

  • In Denmark:

  • Qualify and make visible that quality assurance works at

  • institutional level

  • Further development of quality indicators

  • Motivate institutions for Leonardo-projects

  • Continuing dialogue with social partners

  • At European level:

  • More countries and social partners involved in the work

  • More inspiration and benchmarks between the countries

  • Further qualification of the Indicators

  • to use Quality Assurance as a means to promote mutual trust and transparancy


THANKS!

  • ..for listening.

  • Philip Pedersen, General Inspector of Education

  • Danish Ministry of Education

  • Departement of Vocational Education and Training

  • I work primarily with Policy and Management:

  • Examinations and test

  • Quality approach and assurance in VET and in General

  • EU-projects: Working Group on Quality,

  • Leonardo da Vinci-commitee, European Training Foundation

  • Nordic projects and network


Appendix

The Danish Vocational System


The Ministry of Education

National Education

Authority:

Primary and Lower/Upper

Secondary Education

Upper General

Education

Vocational and Further

Vocational Education

Further Education

(non Universities)

National Authority

for Institutional

Affairs:

Departement for the

Administration

of Finances

Departement for the

Administration

of Institutions

State Educational

Grant and Loan

Scheme Agency


The Danish Adult Education and Training System


Principles - in a liberal-conservative educational policy

Objectives:

  • Solid qualifications and competences

  • Effecient use of resources

    Principles:

  • Common national ”standards” at a high level

  • Test and examination system

  • Management by output and focus on results

    Initiatives:

  • ”Something – for - something”

  • Regulations about Quality/ and a new concept for supervision


VET in Denmark 1: colleges

  • Technical colleges or

  • Business colleges or

  • Combination of college and AMU-centre

  • And : All colleges have co-operation agreements

  • VET-colleges provide:

  • Initial and further vocational programmes

  • Vocational Upper Secondary Education

  • Short-cycle further Education

  • Courses for companies

  • A VET- or AMU-college is:

  • a non-profit institution run by a board (social partners/local authorities

  • accountable to the Ministry and funded by the state

  • Ex: Middelsize: App. 1000 full time students, 75 teachers + 25 staff-

  • members. App. 53 mill. Dkr turnover


VET in Denmark 2: some points

1. Dual system: Work-placed (2/3) and College-based

2. Apprenticeship with a salary for the trainnes 

3. Personal education plan  and career guidance 

4. Certificate: external certification  

5. Social partners play a central role

6. Flexibility: duration/changes/recognition of prior learning 

7. Quality assurance obligatory 

8. VET provided by 140 colleges with own board

9. Target- and framework management

10.Taximeter based system


VET in Denmark 3: structure

  • Basic courses: typically 20 weeks

  • Technology and communication

  • Building and construction

  • Craft and engineering trades

  • Food production and catering

  • Mechanical enginering, transport and logistics

  • Service industries

  • Commerce and clerical trade

  • Main courses: typically 3-3½ year (dual system)

  • app. 90 VET-educations

  • but app. 200 specialised lines

  • work-based and college based training


VET in Denmark 4: The use of ”Elevplan”

  • What’s in it for the Students?:

    • Helps the student and his teacher to define his personal Education

    • Plan and Educational Portfolio

  • … and for the Teachers?

    • Supports the definition of learning activities

    • Helps the teacher to get a general view of which competences a certain student has achieved and which he needs to achieve

  • … and for the Public?

    • Informs educational advisers, parents, employers and future students

    • about vocational education and training

    • Illustrates the possibilities of the reform

    • Branding the reform


VET in Denmark 4. Personal educational plan

  • Trainees have ”log-books”=Individual study portofolios:

  • Overview

  • Documentation

  • Dialogue tool between school/company

  • Trainees have a Personal Educational Plan:

  • The Selected VET

  • Learning Pathways

  • Reflection on Learning: school /company

  • Life Long Learning reflection and choices


VET in Denmark 5: Funding

Per student funding:

Taximeter for teaching expenses:

Teachers’ wages/materials/curriculum/development/ Etc.

+

Taximeter for joint expenses:

Buildings/Administration/Curriculum/Bording facilities

= College fundings: Annual number of students plus taximeter per student

  • From 2003-06 also grants for:

  • Every student completing his/her program

  • Documentation of quality on selected themes


Social partners and the VET sector

Ministry

of Education:

Area of VET

Council for

VET (1)

Trade

Committes

for VET

(2)

  • Board

  • Managers

  • COLLEGE:

  • Technical

  • Commercial

  • Agricultural

  • Social/Health

Local

Educational

Committes

(sectorial)

(3)


Trends i VET-reform, 2003

  • More goal oriented towards job profiles

  • More differentiated programmes:

  • * theoretical and practical side of qualifications

  • Qualifications/skills at different levels in a program

  • 4. Simplicity: common framework

  • Flexibility: duration, individual asssesment, crossing entrances

  • ”Real competences”: formal, non-.formal, informal


Challenges in VET, 2004

  • Make VET more attractive

  • Better match: ”supply/demand” and Apprenticeship

  • Flexible VET and Life Long Learning


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