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NOT FOR ATTRIBUTION; FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY. Environmental Health : Costs of Environmental Health Damage And Net Benefits of Priority Interventions. A Contribution to the Country Environmental Analysis for the Philippines (Part 1) by Agustin L. Arcenas.

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NOT FOR ATTRIBUTION;

FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY


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Environmental Health :Costs of Environmental Health DamageAnd Net Benefits of Priority Interventions

A Contribution to the

Country Environmental Analysis for the Philippines

(Part 1)

by

Agustin L. Arcenas

World Bank CEA Workshop, June 16-17, 2008


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Environmental Health - Areas of Concern

  • Outdoor Air Pollution (OAP)

  • Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)

  • Water Pollution, Sanitation and Hygiene (WSH)


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Basic Outline of the Study (for each area of concern)

  • The basic issues and state of the environment

  • Level of exposure to pollutants and, sanitation and hygiene problems in the Philippines

  • Morbidity Incidence

  • Economic cost of Morbidity

  • Mortality Incidence due to environment

  • Economic cost of mortality

  • Suggested policy interventions

  • Economic evaluation of policy interventions


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How the study was done…

  • Calculate the proportion of total cases of illnesses that are attributable to pollution, sanitation and hygiene

  • Using WHO and Philippine data, determine the cost of treatment and foregone income from illnesses and premature deaths

  • Aggregate the economic costs and values from these calculations





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Sources of PM emissions Pollution

Source: Monitoring Report, 2004


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What we know so far… Pollution

  • There has been a drop in PM emissions in Metro Manila since 2003

  • The number of vehicles in the country is growing

  • Diesel contributes more to PM than gasoline

  • Main source of PM emissions in the country – 2 stroke-tricycles

  • The bulk of vehicles in the country are the tricycles followed by utility vehicles



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Morbidity Cases - OAP Pollution

Total: 119,080


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Costs to Society of OAP-related Illnesses Pollution

Total: PhP 1.9 billion


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Costs to Households of Treatment - OAP, 2003 Pollution

Total: PhP 896 million


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Foregone Income due to OAP-related Illnesses Pollution

Total: PhP 118 million


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Cost of Premature Deaths due to OAP, 2003 Pollution

Total: PhP 697 million


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Potential Interventions to curb OAP Pollution

  • Inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs

  • Installation of pollution control devices

  • Rehabilitation of Current Traffic Management System

  • Investments in Additional Mass Transport System



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Primary Cooking Fuel for Households, 2004 Pollution

Source: HECS, 2004



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Morbidity Cases - IAP Pollution

Total: 114,665


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Costs to Society of IAP-related Illnesses Pollution

Total: PhP 2.3 billion


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Costs to Households of Treatment - IAP, 2003 Pollution

Total: PhP 774 million


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Foregone Income due to IAP-Illnesses, 2003 Pollution

Total: PhP 82 million


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Cost of Premature Deaths due to IAP, 2003 Pollution

Total: PhP 1.4 billion


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Potential Interventions to curb impacts of IAP Pollution

  • Promote improved household living environment (improved ventilation)

  • Promote use of “improved” stoves

  • Effect changes in cooking practices


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Environmental Health : PollutionCosts of Environmental Health DamageAnd Net Benefits of Priority Interventions

A Contribution to the

Country Environmental Analysis for the Philippines

(Part 2)

by

Agustin L. Arcenas

World Bank CEA Workshop, June 16-17, 2008




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Morbidity Cases - WSH 2003 (National)

Total: 488,425


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Costs to Society of WSH-related Illnesses 2003 (National)

Total: PhP 4.9 billion


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Costs to Households of Treatment - WSH, 2003 2003 (National)

Total: PhP 3.0 Billion


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Foregone Income due to Illnesses from WSH, 2003 2003 (National)

Total: PhP 465 million


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Costs of Premature Deaths due to WSH, 2003 2003 (National)

Total: PhP 933 million


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Potential Interventions to eliminate illnesses from WSH 2003 (National)

  • Water Sanitation and Hygiene

  • Improved water supply and quality

  • Hygiene Promotion

  • Construction of Sanitation Facilities (i.e. Latrines)


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Health Benefits of Different Water and Sanitation Interventions

Source: Fewtrell, et al, 2005


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Median Construction Cost of Water Supply Facilities for Select Regions

Source: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, second edition, 2006, Figure 41.1


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WHS Preferred Interventions (Ranked According to Cost-Effectiveness)

Based on: Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2006.


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Final Word Cost-Effectiveness)

Hygiene is two-thirds of health

Lebanese Proverb


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