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Differential Code Biases (DCB) in GNSS Analysis. Stefan Schaer. 12 ns = 3.6 m. GPS P1-P2 DCB Values, Computed at CODE. 28 ns = 8.4 m. GLONASS P1-P2 DCB Values, Computed at CODE. NANU 2008044/045. 4 ns = 1.2 m. GPS P1-C1 DCB Values, Computed at CODE. Introduction (1/2).

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Differential Code Biases (DCB) in GNSS Analysis

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Gps p1 p2 dcb values computed at code l.jpg

12 ns = 3.6 m

GPS P1-P2 DCB Values, Computed at CODE


Glonass p1 p2 dcb values computed at code l.jpg

28 ns = 8.4 m

GLONASS P1-P2 DCB Values, Computed at CODE


Gps p1 c1 dcb values computed at code l.jpg

NANU 2008044/045

4 ns = 1.2 m

GPS P1-C1 DCB Values, Computed at CODE


Introduction 1 2 l.jpg
Introduction (1/2)

  • The following code (pseudorange) observables are available from GPS: C/A (=C1), P1(Y1), P2(Y2), and C2 (for the Block IIR-M constellation).

  • In the presence of Anti-Spoofing (AS), P-codes P1, P2 are encrypted for non-authorized users to Y1, Y2.

  • We have to distinguish between three receiver classes (in terms of the code tracking technology):

    • P1/P2: C1, P1, P2

    • C1/X2: C1, X2=C1+(P2-P1)

    • C1/P2: C1, P2

  • C1/X2 receiver models are identified as cross-correlation (CC) receivers. Prominent examples are Rogue and Trimble 4000 models.

  • The operation of CC receivers depends on the AS state. It is assumed here that AS is always on (!).

  • The latest generations of Leica, Novatel, Trimble receivers belong to the C1/P2 receiver class.

    Note: This is true for GPS, but not for GLONASS observations (P1/P2).

  • We have a method at CODE for verification of the receiver class.


Number of p1 p2 c1 x2 c1 p2 igs receivers used in potsdam dresden reprocessing pdr l.jpg
Number of P1/P2, C1/X2, C1/P2 IGS Receivers Used in Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing (PDR)


Introduction 2 2 l.jpg
Introduction (2/2) Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing (PDR)

  • Instrumental biases, BC1, BP1, BP2, BC2, are present with respect to C1, P1, P2, C2. These biases are not accessible (in the absolute sense).

  • It is common to address the following differences of code biases:

    • P1-P2,

    • P1-C1, and

    • P2-C2 differential code bias (=DCB).

  • By convention, precise satellite clock corrections contain a specific linear combination of P1 and P2 satellite biases, specifically the ionosphere-free LC: 2.55·BP1-1.55·BP2(+B0).

  • It is obvious that code tracking data from both the C1/X2 and the C1/P2 receiver class must be corrected in order to achieve full consistency with P1/P2 data, or precise satellite clock information.

  • Jim Ray’s cc2noncc.f is a RINEX converter utility program to make given code measurements consistent with P1/P2 data by applying satellite-dependent P1-C1 bias corrections (e.g. produced by CODE).


How to use p1 p2 and p1 c1 satellite dcb information l.jpg

Single-freq. Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing (PDR)

Clock

Iono.

Amb. res.

How to Use P1-P2 and P1-C1 Satellite DCB Information

The following table gives the corrections due to satellite-specific P1-P2 and P1-C1 DCB values for the most important linear combinations derived from various combinations of code observable types:

  • Determination methods:

  • P1-P2: Iono. / Abs. receiver cal.

  • P1-C1: Diff. / Clock / Amb. res.


Time series of daily gps p1 p2 dcb values from potsdam dresden reprocessing pdr l.jpg
Time Series of Daily GPS P1-P2 DCB Values From Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing (PDR)


Analysis of realigned dcb time series l.jpg
Analysis of Realigned DCB Time Series Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing (PDR)

  • Realignment: G01, G04, G05, G09, G25, G26 selected as reference for DCB datum definition.

  • The long GPS satellites lifetime (> 14 years) is remarkable.

  • FODITS (Find Outliers and Discontinuities In Time Series), a new component of the Bernese SW for “automated” analysis of GNSS station coordinate time series (developed by Luca Ostini) was used for the first time for this specific application.

  • Visual verification of realigned P1-P2 and P1-C1 DCB time series on the basis of:

    • (stable) receiver DCB results and

    • satellite DCB results for PRN23/SVN23 and PRN32, the reactivated SVN23.







Gps c2 tracking data 1 2 l.jpg
GPS C2 Tracking Data (1/2) (Realigned)

ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/reports/gps/daily/l2c_summary.current:

Current IGS GNSS L2C Data Holdings for 2008 (as of 30-May-08 09:40)

Mon. Receiver Start Start End End No.

Name Site Name Lat. Long. Type Date Day Date Day Days

---- ---------------- ------ ------- --------------- --------- ----- --------- ----- --------

ALIC Alice Springs -23 40 133 53 LEICA GRX1200GG 30-Apr-08 08121 29-May-08 08150 14

UNAC Boulder 40 00 254 44 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 147

CCJ2 Chichi Jima 27 21 142 13 Trimble NETRS 09-Mar-08 08069 29-Mar-08 08089 16

BAKO Cibinong -06 29 106 51 LEICA GRX1200GG 09-May-08 08130 26-May-08 08147 14

DARW Darwin -12 51 131 08 LEICA GRX1200GG 25-Feb-08 08056 29-May-08 08150 78

LEICA GRX12000G 03-Mar-08 08063 03-Mar-08 08063 1

DAVR Davis -68 35 77 58 Trimble NETR5 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 128

FAIC Fairbanks 64 59 212 30 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 150

UNB3 Fredericton 45 57 293 21 Trimble NETR5 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 145

GANP Ganovce 49 01 20 19 Trimble NETR5 22-Feb-08 08053 29-May-08 08150 90

HRAC Hartebeesthoek -25 53 27 41 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 150

HERT Herstmonceux 50 52 0 20 LEICA GRX1200GG 09-May-08 08130 29-May-08 08150 20

RECT Ile-Ife 07 20 04 20 LEICA GRX1200GG 01-May-08 08122 22-May-08 08143 15

KOKC Kokee Park 22 08 200 20 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 150

MAW1 Mawson -67 36 62 52 LEICA GRX1200 05-May-08 08126 26-May-08 08147 21

MCMC McMurdo -77 50 166 40 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 143

MOBS Melbourne -37 50 144 59 LEICA GRX1200PR 29-Apr-08 08120 29-May-08 08150 31

MCIL Minami Tori Shim 24 17 153 59 Trimble 5700 09-Jan-08 08009 27-Mar-08 08087 78

STR2 Mount Stromlo -35 19 149 01 Trimble NETR5 15-Feb-08 08046 29-May-08 08150 95

STR1 Mount Stromlo -35 19 149 01 LEICA GRX1200 30-Apr-08 08121 29-May-08 08150 26

NYAC Ny Alesund 78 56 11 52 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 148

OURI Ourinhos -22 57 -49 54 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 125

ROSA Rosana -22 31 -52 57 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 23-Jan-08 08023 22

Trimble NETR5 31-Jan-08 08031 29-May-08 08150 94

SFER San Fernando 36 28 353 48 Trimble NETRS 21-May-08 08142 29-May-08 08150 9

SJRP Sao Jose Do Rio -20 47 -49 21 Trimble NETRS 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 127

STK2 Shintotsukawa 43 32 141 51 Trimble 5700 01-Jan-08 08001 01-Jan-08 08001 1

NTUS Singapore 1 21 103 41 LEICA GRX1200GG 01-Jan-08 08001 03-May-08 08124 123

AMU2 South Pole -90 00 -00 00 Trimble NETRS 10-Apr-08 08101 29-May-08 08150 50

TSK2 Tsukuba 36 06 140 05 Trimble 5700 23-Jan-08 08023 23-Jan-08 08023 1

YEBE Yebes 40 31 356 55 Trimble NETRS 05-Mar-08 08065 02-Apr-08 08093 29

ZIM2 Zimmerwald 46 53 7 28 Trimble NETR5 01-Jan-08 08001 29-May-08 08150 150

**** **************** ****** ******* --------

2,391

32 sites archived

 IGS Mail 5746


Gps c2 tracking data 2 2 l.jpg
GPS C2 Tracking Data (2/2) (Realigned)

Current situation concerning 2008 data archived at CODE:

ALIC LEICA GRX1200GGPRO C2 only (no diff.)

AMU2 TRIMBLE NETRS C2 only (no diff.)  Receiver firmware downgraded from 1.20 to 1.15

BAKO LEICA GRX1200GGPRO No C2

BNDY TRIMBLE NETRS No C2

BRAZ TRIMBLE NETRS C2 only (no diff.)

CCJM TRIMBLE 5700 No C2

DAEJ TRIMBLE NETRS No C2

DARW LEICA GRX1200GGPRO C2 only (no diff.)

DAVR TRIMBLE NETR5 C2 only (no diff.)

GANP TRIMBLE NETR5 P2 and C2

HERT TRIMBLE NETR5 C2 only (no diff.)

LEIJ JPS LEGACY No C2

MAT1 ASHTECH Z18 No C2

MAW1 LEICA GRX1200 No C2

MCIL TRIMBLE 5700 No C2

MOBS LEICA GRX1200PRO No C2

NTUS LEICA GRX1200GGPRO No C2

PDEL LEICA GRX1200GGPRO No C2

PENC LEICA GRX1200GGPRO No C2

PGC5 TRIMBLE NETRS C2 only (no diff.)  l2ctest at CDDIS

SASS JPS LEGACY No C2

SFER TRIMBLE NETRS No C2

SOFI TPS E_GGD No C2

STR1 LEICA GRX1200 No C2

STR2 TRIMBLE NETR5 C2 only (no diff.)

SUWN TRIMBLE NETRS No C2

TITZ JPS LEGACY No C2

UNB3 TRIMBLE NETR5 P2 and C2

UNBN NOV OEMV3 P2 and C2

UNBT TPS NETG3 P2 and C2

WARN JPS LEGACY No C2

WTZJ JPS LEGACY No C2

WTZR LEICA GRX1200GGPRO No C2

YAR3 LEICA GRX1200GGPRO C2 only (no diff.)

ZIM2 TRIMBLE NETR5 P2 and C2


Gps p2 c2 dcb retrievals for 2008 1 2 l.jpg

2 ns = 0.6 m (Realigned)

GPS P2-C2 DCB Retrievals for 2008 (1/2)

IIR-M (6): G07 G12 G15 G17 G29 G31



Additional bias issues l.jpg
Additional Bias Issues (Realigned)

GLONASS ambiguity resolution:

  • We already started to perform GLONASS ambigity resolution at CODE (and at swisstopo), specifically in

    • our EPN (EUREF) GNSS regional analysis,

    • swisstopo’s AGNES (Automated GNSS Network Switzerland) analysis, including the NRT processing of the AGNES network.

    • CODE’s GNSS global analysis scheme will be upgraded in this sense in the near future. At present, GLONASS AR is performed just for shortest baselines using the direct L1/L2 resolution method.

  • GLONASS single-difference ambiguity initialization bias is crucial in particular for narrow-lane ambiguity fixing for baselines with different GNSS receiver models.

  • Related problems are addressed on the poster by Heinz Habrich et al.

  • GLONASS code biases affect:

    • wide-lane AR using the pseudorange method  (practically) impossible

    • GPS/GLONASS clock estimation  more demanding (compared to GPS)

      GPS L2 ambiguity resolution:

  • We already got confronted with 0.25-cycle phase biases between L2P and L2C, revealed by UNBN NOV OEMV3 observation data.

  • More details will be given in the presentation prepared by Werner Gurtner on “The RINEX format: Current status, future developments.”


New dcb file format for the bernese sw l.jpg
New DCB File Format for the Bernese SW (Realigned)

(see poster by Michael Meindl et al.)

See also: http://www.aiub.unibe.ch/download/bcwg/cc2noncc/


Summary l.jpg
Summary (Realigned)

  • Steadily increasing number of types of biases to be dealt with (…).

  • The knowledge of GPS P1-C1 biases is a must for successful ambiguity resolution (on long baselines) and for precise clock estimation when relying on a mixed receiver network.

  • ESA/ESOC's latest version of cc2noncc (capable to cope with RINEX 2.11) was recommended in IGS Mail 5778/5781 (by Nacho Romero).

  • Regularly updated P1-C1 bias table: p1c1bias.2000(p). See:

    http://www.aiub.unibe.ch/download/bcwg/cc2noncc2/

    http://igscb.jpl.nasa.org/projects/bcwg/ (or simply http://igs.org/projects/bcwg/)

  • Problems related to datum definition, detection of jump discontinuities, drifts, outliers, anomalies are very similar to those of other time series, such as station coordinates.

  • Time series results show

    • commonly very stable satellite DCB retrievals,

    • a considerably increased scattering of P1-C1 DCB estimates as long as the number of P1/P2 receivers is small (close to 1),

    • only few jump discontinuities (for the GPS constellation)’

  • Generation of a mean set of P1-P2 and P1-C1 DCB values (consistent to one common DCB reference, eventually aligned in the absolute sense) may be seen as a mid-term goal.


Recommendations discussion l.jpg
Recommendations / Discussion (Realigned)

  • Continuous monitoring of differential code bias (DCB) values with respect to P1-C1 and P1-P2 must be continued.

  • Time lab stations available in the IGS network should not only be considered for clock analysis, but also for ionosphere analysis (for monitoring of the corresponding receiver P1-P2 code biases).

  • GLONASS satellite and receiver DCB results should be included in IGSG and IGRG IONEX products.

  • Absolute receiver calibration with respect to C1 (and also C2) would be desirable.

  • IGS C2 data availability has to be improved.

  • cc2noncc is capable to correct RINEX observation data for GPS P1-C1 bias values only. IGS users (and in particular the ACs) should be prepared to apply corresponding code bias corrections in their own GNSS analysis software (in order to cope with P2-C2, other GNSS, RINEX 3, etc.).

  • For the IGS reprocessing, AS-free periods in -1994, 1995 (3), 1997 (1) must be considered (applying no P1-C1 bias corrections there).

  • File format for DCB data exchange.

  • Use of RINEX 3 (?)

  • Quarter-cycle phase bias issue (!)

  • Provision of (mean) GLONASS single-difference ambiguity initialization bias values for the various types of IGS GNSS receivers (?)

  • DCB quantities conform with “undifferenced ambiguity resolution” (…)


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