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Color Models & Color Space. 5 ways of specifying colors. Color Models. RGB - mixing primary light colors CMYK - mixing primary pigment colors Indexed color - matching colors on screen to a specific color table Lab color - international standard, device independent

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Color models color space l.jpg

Color Models & Color Space

5 ways of specifying colors

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


Color models l.jpg
Color Models

  • RGB - mixing primary light colors

  • CMYK - mixing primary pigment colors

  • Indexed color - matching colors on screen to a specific color table

  • Lab color - international standard, device independent

  • HSB - hue, saturation & brightness

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


Additive color model rgb l.jpg
Additive color model (RGB)

  • Red, blue & green are primary colors

  • Applies when mixing colors of light (on tv & computer screens, theatrical lighting)

  • Mixed primaries make white light

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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An RGB color image

Red

channel only

Red +

Green

Red + blue + green

Green + blue

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Subtractive color model (CMYK)

  • Cyan, magenta & yellow are primary colors

  • Applies when pigments are mixed on a surface (printing, painting, etc.)

  • Mixed primaries make “black”

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


Elements of a cmyk image l.jpg
Elements of a CMYK image

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


C m printers l.jpg
C + M printers

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


C m y printers l.jpg
C + M + Y printers

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


C m y k printers l.jpg
C + M + Y + K printers

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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The Lab color model

  • Three axes (L, a & b) define a “color space.”

  • All colors can be precisely defined by their position in this space.

  • Lab model is a world-wide standard for all monitors & printers.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Elements of an Lab image

Luminance (L)

Color axis a (green/magenta)

Color axis b (yellow/blue)

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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HSB color model

HSB model is based on human perception of color, represented by the color wheel.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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HSB color model

  • Hue is the color reflected from or transmitted through an object. Hue is identified by the name of the color.

  • Saturation represents color purity-- the amount of gray in proportion to the hue.

  • Brightness is the relative lightness or darkness of the color.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Photoshop’s HSB controls

Normal image

Image with hue, saturation and brightness altered.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Color gamuts

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Out-of-gamut colors

Colors specified in RBG

Colors printed in CMYK

Colored inks on paper cannot reproduce the bright, intense colors that are possible when mixing with light on a monitor. If your art is to be printed on paper, specify colors in CMYK mode to avoid “color shock” when your job comes back from the print shop.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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Index color: web-safe palette

Original RGB format

Image indexed to web palette

24-bit RGB images may contain 16.7 million colors. Index color images can have no more than 255 colors. The web-safe palette has only 216 colors. Those colors are common to both Macintosh and Windows operating systems.

Multi-media Graphics JOUR 205


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