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CHAPTER 30. THE DEVELOPING WORLD SINCE 1945. The Future of the Developing World. For a long time the developing world after World War II was seen as one in which Marxism or some form of socialism would be particularly applicable and successful. . Jettisoning Capitalism.

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Chapter 30 l.jpg
CHAPTER 30

  • THE DEVELOPING WORLD SINCE 1945


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The Future of the Developing World

  • For a long time the developing world after World War II was seen as one in which Marxism or some form of socialism would be particularly applicable and successful.


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Jettisoning Capitalism

  • Free enterprise and free trade capitalism or the stigma of imperialism and decolonization led many to jettison capitalism as well.


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Socialism

  • Promised a more purposeful and scientific program.

  • Could balance the needs of a poor population with the needs to industrialize rapidly to catch up to the rest of the world.


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Western Europe’s Socialism

  • Even Western Europe caught the fever.

  • Began a whole series of government-initiated social welfare programs.

  • Could free enterprise capitalism survive?


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Confrontation in East Asia

  • In East Asia there was a kind of confrontation that would decide this.

  • China, which after 1949 was among the most active communist systems, confronted a new Asian-style capitalism just taking root in U.S. Occupation-managed Japan.


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Economic Paradigm

  • This form of capitalism put business and the government in partnership.

  • It become the paradigm for the new fast-growth economies that spread from Japan to the "Four Tigers" of the Pacific Rim.

    • South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore.


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Muslim Fundamentalism

  • Another alternative to Western liberal secular models.

  • Its power was first demonstrated in the Ayatollah Khomeini's overthrow of the Shah of Iran.

  • Fundamentalist Islam quickly became a strong political current, especially in the Mideast.


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Revolutions Contemplated

  • The revolutions that were fought in China to gain a communist state were contemplated enthusiastically by dozens of nations in

    • Africa

    • The Middle East

    • South and Southeast Asia

    • Latin America.


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Optimism was Unrealistic

  • Disappointing patterns became widespread

    • internal ethnic or tribal division

    • failed economic plans

    • military coups.


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Shortcomings Appeared

  • Gradually, the shortcomings of ideological panaceas became apparent.

  • Observers have come to appreciate the magnitude of the problems facing most of the so-called Third World.


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Unrealistic Expectations

  • Remember that the rise of rich and powerful European states had taken centuries to develop.

  • Expecting tribal societies to transform themselves into modern nations within a generation was clearly unrealistic.


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Population Explosions

  • Many Third World societies are experiencing population explosions that are creating enormous stresses.


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Population Stresses

  • Any country that doubles its population in twenty-five years has to provide enormous increases just to maintain existing living standards

    • food supply

    • education budgets

    • job creation

    • medical care.


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The Cold War Rivalry

  • The post-World War II history of developing nations involves not just the choice of economic systems.

  • There was also a Cold War in which the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for almost fifty years tried to extend their respective influences politically and militarily.


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The Cold War Effects

  • This rivalry influenced virtually every diplomatic and political decision.

  • No developing country could avoid being deeply affected by this bipolar conflict.

  • Wars were fought in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan.


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Collapse of the Soviet Union

  • After the collapse, the major powers are no longer so quick to intervene in developing areas.

  • This leaves countries freer to indulge their own quarrels, often at the expense of both world order and the innocent civilians caught in these wars.


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Dangerous Confrontations

  • Major-power arms exports have given a decidedly military character to the Third World.

  • Religious and ethnic confrontations are becoming uglier and more dangerous all the time from Kashmir to East Timor to Chechnya to the Balkans.


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YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND

  • Mao Tse-tung's victory in China and the changes made under Communist rule.

  • The policy directions taken by the post-Mao leadership


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YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND

  • The new power balance made possible by opening relations and trade with the United States and the rest of the world.

  • The political and economic connections in Southeast Asia that link it to the Pacific Rim.


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YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND

  • The course of Indian politics following independence and partition.

  • The realignments in the Middle East accompanying the Arab-Israeli conflict and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the post-Cold War era.


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YOU SHOULD UNDESTAND

  • The process of creation of new nations in Africa and their subsequent problems.

  • The problems of Latin America and its relationship with the United States.


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