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Applying Quality Function Deployment to Software Development. ISQFD’99-Brazil Pre-conference Workshop 2. Professor Hisakazu Shindo Yamanashi University (Japan) [email protected] Abstract.

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Applying Quality Function Deployment

to Software Development


Pre-conference Workshop 2

Professor Hisakazu Shindo

Yamanashi University (Japan)

[email protected]

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QFD was proposed as a quality assurance methodology

in developing a new product.

Later, QFD has been introduced into various industries

such as manufacturing, construction, service, software, etc.

QFD applications to software development have been basically

carried out in the similar manner as employed in other fields.

Usually QFD starts with making a quality table consists of

requirements for quality and quality elements.

In software development, work of design said to be more

important than that of other fields because its quality is almost

determined by design itself.

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In order to effectively apply QFD to software

development, a new methodology is required.

So, we must focus our attention on a

design-oriented aspect of QFD.

First, we consider two approaches to

problem solving.

Then, we re-recognize the significance of QFD.

Lastly, we propose a basic concept for applying

QFD to software development.

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Two approaches to problem solving

Engineering and a two-dimensional table

Relevant topics

An application of QFD to software development

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Two approaches to problem solving

Analytic approach

     “QC story”isa typical one.

Design-oriented approach

QFD can be considered

as one of design-oriented approaches.

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Analytic approach

past present

This is on the causality basis.

The process of asking “Why” many times

leads to problem solving.

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present future

A design-oriented approach

Satisfying a desire by realizing something to be made.

This is correspondent to work of design itself.

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Needs of design-oriented approaches grow

while QA activity is shifting from down stream

to up stream of a product development cycle.

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Quality assurance has deeply related to design work.

We cannot help thinking about what design is.

Design is drawing or outline from which something

may be made.

Design is general arrangement or planning.

Design is pattern.

Design is purpose, intention, or mental plan.

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Engineering drawing

(Engineering) drawing is the art of representing

objects, scenes, etc by lines, with a pencil, chalk, etc.



It consists of three

orthogonal views.

Everything shaped can be

designed in this way.


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Analogy between drawing and a table

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Why do we start QFD with grasping requirements for quality?


We know this is an automobile.

So we can express requirements

for quality with relative ease.

We don’t know what it is.

So we cannot express our


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Why do we need such a large quality table?

Applying QFD directly to a finished product,

the size of its quality table easily becomes large.

To reduce the size of the table, some people apply

QFD restrictedly to a subsystem or a part of the


However, it is a contradiction because the subsystem

or the part is determined after the design process

considerably progresses.

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If we want to have a handy table for QFD,

we should make it well-structured by any means.

Note that any two items of column and row are

allowed to exchange respectively. This operation

never violates the content of the table.

So, we can reduce the complexity of the table

by positively using this operation.

Quantification method of type three can be utilized.

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This is an example of a description

about staff and their expertise.

Staff A has expertise concerning SPC and PC and

TQM is shared by staff C, D, E, F, and G.

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Applying QM3 to the previous table,

we can obtain the following:

The result indicates staff can be

classified into four groups.

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F x P

Quality F x Q

Reliability F x R

A new paradigm of applying QFD


Value Engineering

Quality Management

Reliability Engineering

Establishing basic concept of the product

Extracting major problems to be solved

(Bottleneck engineering)

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Establishing basic concept of the product

Extracting major problems to be solved (Bottleneck engineering)








Technological viewpoint, Experiences, Knowledge, Tools

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An application of QFD to software development

(1)Extract requirement for function and relevant data from

various kinds of users’ requirements.

(2)Make a two dimensional table of function and data.

(3)Apply the “QM3” to the table to nearly decompose it.

(4)Specify the function and data of each subsystem or module

and their interfaces.

(5) Extract requirements for quality with respect to each

subsystem and compose necessary quality tables.

(6) Compose a quality table and determine the quality level

of each function.

(7) Design database while taking functions into consideration.

(8) Design algorithms necessary to realize function of

subsystem to the satisfactory degree.

(9) Extract test cases considering actual operating environment.