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Research Planning & Design. Sample project plan for a dissertation. Timing: Dates / weeks / months → → → → → → → →. Scientific Method: The basic process of (hypothetico) deduction. Deduction: Theory  observations/findings. Induction:

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Research planning design

Research Planning & Design


Sample project plan for a dissertation

Sample project plan for a dissertation

Timing: Dates / weeks / months → → → → → → → →


Research planning design

Scientific Method: The basic

process of (hypothetico) deduction


Deduction and induction

Deduction:

Theory  observations/findings

Induction:

Observations/findings  theory

Deduction and Induction


Research hypotheses powell 1995 attempted to ascertain the economic value of tqm

Research HypothesesPowell (1995) attempted to ascertain the economic value of TQM

Powell had 15 hypotheses 3 of which were:

1 TQM firms outperform non TQM firms

2 L-T TQM firms outperform S-T TQM firms

3 Manufacturing TQM firms outperform service

TQM firms (see B&B p12)

What measures?


Steps in selecting research questions

Steps in Selecting Research Questions

Select research area (e.g. TQM)

Select aspect of research area

(e.g. Impact of TQM on work)

Generate research questions

Select research questions


Research planning design

Research Questions


Research questions

Research Questions

  • guide your literature search

  • guide your decisions about the kind of research design to employ

  • guide your decisions about what data to collect and from whom

  • guide your analysis of your data

  • guide your writing up of your data

  • stop you from going off in unnecessary directions and tangents

Research questions:


The process of induction

The Process of Induction

Compare theory

Develop theory

Look for patterns

Form Categories

Ask Questions

Gather information


Research designs and methods

Research Designs and Methods

  • A Research Design provides a framework for the collection and analysis of data. Choice of research design reflects decisions about priorities given to the dimensions of the research process.

  • A Research Method is simply a procedure for collecting data. Choice of research method reflects decisions about the type of instruments or techniques to be used.


Constraints on research questions

Constraints on Research Questions

·We cannot answer all the research questions that occur to us

·We therefore have to select from the possible research questions that we arrive at

·We should be guided by the principle that the research questions we choose should be related to one another


Types of research design

Types of Research Design

1. Experimental

2. Cross-sectional

3. Longitudinal

4. Case study

5. Comparative


Experimental design

Quantitative

Typical form:

Most researchers using an experimental design employ quantitative comparisons between experimental and control groups with regard to the dependent variable.

Qualitative

No typical form:

The Hawthorne experiments provide an example of experimental research design that gradually moved away from the ‘test room method’ towards the use of more qualitative methods.

Experimental Design

see Table 2.1


Classical experimental design

Classical Experimental Design

T18 months T2

Obs1experimentalObs2 experimental

treatment group

Random

Assignment

Obs3no Obs4 control

experimentalgroup

treatment


Cross sectional design

Quantitative

Typical form:

Social survey research or structured observation on a sample at a single point in time. Can also include content analysis on a sample of documents.

Qualitative

Typical form:

Qualitative interviews or focus groups at a single point in time Can also be based upon qualitative content analysis of a set of documents relating to a single period.

Cross-sectional Design

see Table 2.1


A cross sectional design

A Cross-sectional Design

T1

Obs1

Obs2

Obs3

Obs4

Obs5

Obsn

Fig 2.2


The data rectangle in cross sectional research

The Data Rectangle in Cross-sectional Research

Fig 2.3


Longitudinal design

Quantitative

Typical form:

Social survey research on a sample on more than one occasion or content analysis of documents relating to different time periods.

Qualitative

Typical form:

Ethnographic research over a long period, qualitative interviewing on more than one occasion, or qualitative content analysis of documents relating to different time periods.

Longitudinal Design

see Table 2.1


The longitudinal design

The Longitudinal Design

T1…tn

Obs1obs1

Obs2obs2

Obs3obs3

Obs4obs4

Obs5obs5

……

Obsnobsn

Fig 2.4


Case study design

Quantitative

Typical form:

Social survey research on a single case with a view to revealing important features about its nature.

Qualitative

Typical form:

The intensive study by ethnography or qualitative interviewing of a single case, which may be an organization, or an individual.

Case study Design

see Table 2.1


Types of case

Types of case

  • A case can be about:

    • A single organization

    • A single location

    • A person

    • A single event

  • Yin’s (1984) case typology:

    • The critical case

    • The unique (or extreme) case

    • The revelatory case


Comparative design

Quantitative

Typical form:

Social survey research in which there is a direct comparison between two or more cases, as in cross‑cultural research.

Qualitative

Typical form:

Ethnographic or qualitative interview research on two or more cases.

Comparative Design

see Table 2.1


A comparative design

A Comparative Design

Case 1T1

Obs1

Obs2

Obs3

Obs4

Obs5

Obsn

Obs1

Obs2

Obs3

Case nObs4

Obs5

Obsn

Fig 2.5


Criteria in social research

Criteria in Social Research

  • Reliability – are measures consistent?

  • Replication/replicability– is study repeatable?

  • Validity – are conclusions well-founded?


Level of analysis

Level of Analysis

  • Individual; e.g. manager or employee

  • Departmentorwork group

  • Organization; e.g. structure or culture

  • Marketorsocietal context in which organizations are located


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