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GULF WAR -- Vinaya Patil (9418) -- Ritika Dange (9403) -- Vinodhini Patil (9419). Introduction: First major conflict involving the United States since Vietnam Saddam Hussein ordered an invasion of Kuwait in August, 1990 and the Iraqi forces quickly seized control of the small nation.
-- Vinaya Patil (9418)
-- Ritika Dange (9403)
-- Vinodhini Patil (9419)
Another media house, MSNBC ran a tribute called “America’s Bravest”
A study was released by FAIR: It states that current or former government or military officials accounted for 76% of sources for news stories about Iraq aired on news channels.
Al Jazeera: Arab Media Outfit civilian casualties referred to as “martyrs”, press conferences with Iraqi officials claiming to win the war and American and British POWs that the US Media refused to air.
In wake of invasion, Iraqi media changed drastically. Number of media houses started increasing both in and outside the country.
He mentioned there were more chances for the journalists to make favorable reports whilst in Iraq with British and American soldiers than if they had been asking questions in Washington.
Entman also mentioned the high number of retired generals making comments on TV, pointing out these could not be considered independent experts as they were still paid by the government.
The Ministry of Defense explained "maintaining morale as well as information dominance will rank as important as physical protection".
On April 9, 2003, a large statue of Saddam Hussein in Baghdad\'s Firdos Square, directly in front of the Palestine Hotel where the world\'s journalists had been quartered, was toppled by a U.S. M88 tank recovery vehicle surrounded by dozens of celebrating Iraqis, who had been attempting to pull down the statue earlier with little success.
The M88 was able to topple the statue which was jumped upon by Iraqi citizens who then decapitated the head of the statue and dragged it through the streets of the city hitting it with their shoes.
The event was widely publicized, but allegations that it had been staged were soon published.
“Victimisation” Of American Citizens & Public Opinion Formed By U.S. Media
Terror Theme Played By MediaThe way the media established the living-room participant as a sort of vicarious casualty was by the incessant repetition of the terrorism theme.Report after report about terrorism was based on nothing more than the speculation of self-styled terrorism "experts," Example: "Anti-terrorism experts say an attack in the U.S. can be expected.... [The question is] not if an attack, but when." (NBC, 1/22/91) The experts usually turned out to be either Bush administration officials or corporate security consultants for whom fear means business, or sometimes both. Example: Billie Vincent, a member of Bush\'s anti-terrorism task force and president of a company that designed security systems for airports, wrote a New York Times op-ed (2/26/91) piece with the unsurprising rallying cry, "Improve airline bomb detection."
A phenomenon related to the domination of the media discussion by retired military men was a near-worship of weapons.
The ultimate in weapons fetishism came in discussion of the ultimate weapon—the nuclear bomb. During the Gulf Crisis, journalists gave serious, sometimes sympathetic consideration to the use of atomic weapons against Iraq. "Should a Nuclear Bomb Be Used Against Iraq?" was one of the "ethical dilemmas" Time magazine examined in its Feb. 4 issue.
"If I wanted to lie, or if we wanted to lie, if we wanted to exaggerate, I wouldn\'t use my daughter to do so. I could easily buy other people to do it."--Saud Nasir al-Sabah, Kuwait\'s Ambassador to the United States and Canada
Only a few astute observers noticed the hypocrisy in Hill & Knowlton\'s use of the term "human rights."
In fact, the most emotionally moving testimony on October 10 came from a 15-year-old Kuwaiti girl, known only by her first name of Nayirah.
The story of babies torn from their incubators was repeated over and over again.
At the Human Rights Caucus, however, Hill & Knowlton and Congressman Lantos had failed to reveal that Nayirah was a member of the Kuwaiti Royal Family.
Given the narrowness of the vote, the babies-thrown-from-incubators story may have turned the tide in Bush\'s favor.
Although influential media such as the New York Times and Wall Street Journal kept promoting the illusion of the \'clean war,\' a different picture began to emerge after the US stopped carpet-bombing Iraq.
But many TV journalists did not need to be coerced into abandoning the appearance of independence, instead accepting the task of guiding public opinion in favor of the war as their natural role.
Reporters treated officials, particularly military officials, with kid gloves.
Journalists and pundits were rightfully outraged when Baghdad advertised its violations of the Geneva protocols by parading prisoners of war on TV.
Other reporters in Baghdad, such as ABC\'s Bill Blakemore, also did creditable jobs of reporting the facts as they saw them, sometimes under considerable pressure from their anchors to conform to the official Washington version.
On 10 March 1991, 540,000 American troops began to move out of the Persian Gulf.
The Iranian revolution and seven years of bloody and inconclusive warfare have changed Iraq\'s view of its Arab neighbors, the United States, and even Israel.