Rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations
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RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University , Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA [email protected] Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia.

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C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu

Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory,

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA

[email protected]

Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia

  • More than 20,000 human deaths occur every year

  • 17.4 million humans are bitten by dogs in India every year

  • Over Rs. 1200 crores are spent annually on post bite vaccination assuming about half of the exposed do not get PET

  • Over 15 Crores is spent on PET in farm animals

The Study

  • The study was conducted on brain tissues collected from a total of 356 animals including 231 dogs, 79 buffaloes and 46 cows.

  • The brain tissues of only those animals that were suspected to be suffering from rabies clinically were included in this study.

Impression smear from hippocampus of a rabid dog showing magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875

Section of Hippocampus of a rabid dog showingintra-cytoplasmic eosinophilic Negri bodies ( arrows )in neurons. H&E x875

Incidence in animals

  • SuspectedConfirmed

  • 356 201

  • 231 dogs 128 dogs

  • 79 buffaloes 44 buffaloes

  • 46 cows 29 cows

Initial Signs of Rabies

  • Rabid Dogs

  • About half the rabid dogs go off feed & show change in behavior few exhibit fever. Ocular involvement is rare.

  • Rabid Cows

  • Almost every rabid cow goes off feed and about half the rabid cows exhibit fever. Few rabid cows exhibit ocular involvement .

  • Rabid Buffaloes

  • Majority of rabid buffaloes go off feed and more than half exhibit fever. Majority of buffaloes show ocular involvement .

Most susceptible Age/Sex

  • Incidence in higher in adult dogs (>3 Yrs.) and pups (<6 M). The incidence is minimum in 6 M to 3 Years dogs.

  • The higher incidence of rabies in male dogs is largely due to their gregarious wandering and furious nature especially during breeding season.

Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines

  • Only 24 percent rabid dogs show hyper salivation that is characteristic for bovines. So, Veterinarian need not look for clinical hypersalivation while suspecting dog rabies.

  • Only 30 % rabid dogs show paralysis . Paralysis is not necessarily the end sign in dogs.

Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines

  • About half of the rabid dogs continue to recognize their owner

  • Most rabid cows and buffaloes fail to recognize their owners

Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines

  • More than half (61%) of all rabid animals show aggressive behavior. Majority of aggressive rabid dogs inflict bite wounds to humans and/or other animals.

  • Aggression of bovines is limited to inflicting trauma to themselves. No rabid bovine ever bites other animals and/or humans.

Bovines - SimilarityBellowing in Bovines

  • Majority of both cows and buffaloes (66%) reveal prolonged and prominent fits of loud bellowing

Bovines - Differences Drooling Saliva -32% v/s 86%

  • Drooling saliva is often reported as the characteristic feature in rabies in bovines

  • It was found that hyper salivation was exhibited by less than half (32%) of rabid buffaloes

  • However, hyper salivation was more commonly exhibited (86%) by rabid cows.

Bovines - Differences Micturition in Bovines

  • Rabid Cows

  • Reveal frequent micturition

  • Rabid Buffaloes

  • Frequent micturition is not common in buffaloes

Month-wise Incidence

  • Increased incidence in dogs was reported during January, February, July and November.

  • Increased incidence in buffaloes was observed during January to March

  • Increased incidence in cattle was observed during March, April, June, August, October and November

Major Area of Concern

  • 78% of owned rabid dogs were not vaccinated prophylactically.

  • There is high incidence of rabies in owned/community dogs.


Characteristics of rabid dogs

Characteristics of rabid cows

Characteristics of rabid buffaloes

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