rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations
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RABIES IN SOUTH ASIA - EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University , Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA [email protected] Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia.

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rabies in south asia epidemiological investigations


C.K.Singh and B.S. Sandhu

Rabies Research-cum-Diagnostic Laboratory,

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana , Punjab, INDIA

[email protected]

talking from highest prevalence of rabies in eurasia
Talking from highest prevalence of rabies in Eurasia
  • More than 20,000 human deaths occur every year
  • 17.4 million humans are bitten by dogs in India every year
  • Over Rs. 1200 crores are spent annually on post bite vaccination assuming about half of the exposed do not get PET
  • Over 15 Crores is spent on PET in farm animals
the study
The Study
  • The study was conducted on brain tissues collected from a total of 356 animals including 231 dogs, 79 buffaloes and 46 cows.
  • The brain tissues of only those animals that were suspected to be suffering from rabies clinically were included in this study.
Impression smear from hippocampus of a rabid dog showing magenta colored intracellular Negri body (arrow) in a neuron. Seller’s stain x875
Section of Hippocampus of a rabid dog showingintra-cytoplasmic eosinophilic Negri bodies ( arrows )in neurons. H&E x875
incidence in animals
Incidence in animals
  • SuspectedConfirmed
  • 356 201
  • 231 dogs 128 dogs
  • 79 buffaloes 44 buffaloes
  • 46 cows 29 cows
initial signs of rabies
Initial Signs of Rabies
  • Rabid Dogs
  • About half the rabid dogs go off feed & show change in behavior few exhibit fever. Ocular involvement is rare.
  • Rabid Cows
  • Almost every rabid cow goes off feed and about half the rabid cows exhibit fever. Few rabid cows exhibit ocular involvement .
  • Rabid Buffaloes
  • Majority of rabid buffaloes go off feed and more than half exhibit fever. Majority of buffaloes show ocular involvement .
most susceptible age sex
Most susceptible Age/Sex
  • Incidence in higher in adult dogs (>3 Yrs.) and pups (<6 M). The incidence is minimum in 6 M to 3 Years dogs.
  • The higher incidence of rabies in male dogs is largely due to their gregarious wandering and furious nature especially during breeding season.
signs symptoms dogs v s bovines
Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines
  • Only 24 percent rabid dogs show hyper salivation that is characteristic for bovines. So, Veterinarian need not look for clinical hypersalivation while suspecting dog rabies.
  • Only 30 % rabid dogs show paralysis . Paralysis is not necessarily the end sign in dogs.
signs symptoms dogs v s bovines1
Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines
  • About half of the rabid dogs continue to recognize their owner
  • Most rabid cows and buffaloes fail to recognize their owners
signs symptoms dogs v s bovines2
Signs & Symptoms -Dogs v/s Bovines
  • More than half (61%) of all rabid animals show aggressive behavior. Majority of aggressive rabid dogs inflict bite wounds to humans and/or other animals.
  • Aggression of bovines is limited to inflicting trauma to themselves. No rabid bovine ever bites other animals and/or humans.
bovines similarity bellowing in bovines
Bovines - SimilarityBellowing in Bovines
  • Majority of both cows and buffaloes (66%) reveal prolonged and prominent fits of loud bellowing
bovines differences drooling saliva 32 v s 86
Bovines - Differences Drooling Saliva -32% v/s 86%
  • Drooling saliva is often reported as the characteristic feature in rabies in bovines
  • It was found that hyper salivation was exhibited by less than half (32%) of rabid buffaloes
  • However, hyper salivation was more commonly exhibited (86%) by rabid cows.
bovines differences micturition in bovines
Bovines - Differences Micturition in Bovines
  • Rabid Cows
  • Reveal frequent micturition
  • Rabid Buffaloes
  • Frequent micturition is not common in buffaloes
month wise incidence
Month-wise Incidence
  • Increased incidence in dogs was reported during January, February, July and November.
  • Increased incidence in buffaloes was observed during January to March
  • Increased incidence in cattle was observed during March, April, June, August, October and November
major area of concern
Major Area of Concern
  • 78% of owned rabid dogs were not vaccinated prophylactically.
  • There is high incidence of rabies in owned/community dogs.