An assessment of China’s approach
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 22

Presentation PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 101 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

An assessment of China’s approach to grassland degradation & livelihood problems in the pastoral region Scott Waldron, Colin Brown & John Longworth China Agricultural Economics Group The University of Queensland www.nrsm.uq.edu.au/caeg. Presentation. The problem 1 (a). Grassland degradation

Download Presentation

Presentation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Presentation

An assessment of China’s approach to grassland degradation & livelihood problems in the pastoral regionScott Waldron, Colin Brown & John LongworthChina Agricultural Economics GroupThe University of Queenslandwww.nrsm.uq.edu.au/caeg


Presentation

Presentation

  • The problem

  • 1 (a). Grassland degradation

  • 1 (b). Pastoral livelihoods

    2. The “fixes”

  • 2 (a). Technical fixes

  • 2 (b). Administrative fixes

  • 2 (c). Management fixes

    3. Assessment

  • More emphasis needed on the latter - “management fixes”


1 a levels of grassland degradation

1 (a). Levels of grassland degradation


1 a causes of degradation

1 (a) Causes of degradation

  • Non-livestock grazing pressure

    • Rodents

    • Insects

  • Exposure of topsoil

    • Herb picking

    • Rip lines for tree planting & artificial grasses

    • Cultivation / land reclamation !!!!

  • But consensus that over-grazing of livestock is the main cause!!!!


1 a levels of overgrazing seasonality is an issue

1 (a) Levels of overgrazingSeasonality is an issue

  • Winter-spring grasslands heavily over-grazed

  • Summer grasslands less heavily grazed & sometimes under-grazed


1 b pastoral incomes

1 (b). Pastoral incomes


1 b pastoral livelihoods

1 (b). Pastoral livelihoods

  • But income data masks other livelihood determinants

  • Pockets of poverty

  • Lack of access to

    • Services (education, health, medical)

    • & infrastructure (housing, power, roads)

  • Justification for nomad settlement & resettlement


1 a b the grassland degradation low income cycle

1 (a,b). The grassland degradation–low income cycle

  • How is China attempting to break the cycle?

  • How can this approach be improved?


2 fixes to break the grassland livelihood cycle

2. “Fixes” to break the grassland-livelihood cycle

  • China turning attention to urgent problems

    • Rmb100 billion investment in the grasslands from 1998 to 2005

    • In the full range of programs that impact on grasslands

  • “Fixes” can be classed as:

    • Technical

    • Administrative

    • Management


2 a technical measures

2 (a). Technical measures

  • To increase grassland productivity

    • Grassland seeding and improvement

  • To reduce non-livestock grazing pressure

    • Rodent and insect control

  • To exclude livestock and secure property rights

    • Fencing

  • Other infrastructure

    • E.g. Dips, market places and shearing sheds

  • To intensify livestock systems !!!!!!

    • Pen-feeding, feed, flock structures and breeding


2 b administrative fixes

2 (b). Administrative fixes

  • Technical fixes complemented by strengthening of administrative measures

  • On the basis that local level systems (collective-individual co-management) have failed

  • So the State is assuming control!


2 b policy and legislative framework

2 (b) Policy and legislative framework


2 b reduce livestock return grasslands

2 (b). “Reduce livestock return grasslands”

  • Set aside program like “Grain for Green”

  • Grazing bans & compensation payments

    • Whole year bans, whole year pen-feeding

    • Or seasonal bans – especially spring grasslands

    • Average of 5 years per area / household

    • Will be rolled out throughout the entire pastoral region!!!


2 a b technical administrative fixes

2 (a,b). Technical & administrative fixes:

  • Designed to get people & livestock off the grasslands!!!

    • Intensify livestock systems

    • Settlement & resettlement

    • Increase off-farm labour, migration & on-leasing

  • Like the rest of rural China!!!


2 a b technical administrative fixes1

2 (a,b). Technical & administrative fixes

  • Provide immediate solutions to immediate problems

  • But it is simply not logistically possible to implement, enforce & maintain over 400 million ha. of variable and inaccessible county

  • Need to be complemented with long-term, bottom-up measures

  • i.e. Termed as management fixes


2 c management fixes

2 (c). Management fixes

  • Seasonal turnoff cycles reduce pressure on cold season grasslands

  • But in the context of an increase in year-end livestock numbers

  • Maintains pressure on grasslands &/or cultivated land

Inner Mongolia mid and end year stock numbers

Source: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Bureau of Statistics (various years)


2 c household level production decisions

2 (c). Household level production decisions

  • More responsive management practices include:

    • Increasing turnoff rates of offspring – for slaughter & to agricultural areas for finishing

    • Culling unproductive breeders – animal selection

  • Trials / modelling show that destocking/selection can be offset by productivity gains – income neutral or gains

    • To increase livestock value per unit grazing pressure

  • But these initiatives require

    • Change in “traditional systems” (while maintaining “indigenous knowledge”)

    • Better farm management capacity - empowerment of herders

    • Which are under-emphasised in State extension & training programs

  • However not all households will be able to adapt

    • Zhuanyi & on-leasing

    • Which involves another series of skills, language

      & training issues


2 c integration of households into markets

2 (c). Integration of households into markets

  • Targeting production

    • To meet the demands of specific markets in which pastoral areas have a comparative advantage

      • E.g. Hot Pot, green food, textile markets

    • These can be higher value markets and can increase household revenues

  • But meeting these market demands requires

    • Better farm management skills

      • As discussed above

    • The development of effective local groups (associations, cooperatives)

      • For the production & assembly of homogeneous lines of product

    • The development of an efficient marketing system

      • That engenders price-grade differentials

  • All of which are highly undeveloped in the pastoral region & largely neglected

  • Initiatives required


Centralisation decentralisation zhua fang cycles in grasslands management

Centralisation-decentralisation (zhua-fang) cycles in grasslands management


2 b nomad settlement

2 (b). Nomad settlement

  • And many more cases of resettlement


  • Login