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Critical Reflections on Theory and Research Related to Comprehension Strategies Instruction. Janice F. Almasi, Ph.D. Carol Lee Robertson Endowed Professor of Literacy University of Kentucky [email protected] Contact Information.

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Critical reflections on theory and research related to comprehension strategies instruction

Critical Reflections on Theory and Research Related to Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Janice F. Almasi, Ph.D.

Carol Lee Robertson Endowed Professor of Literacy

University of Kentucky

[email protected]


Contact information
Contact Information Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • For further information about this presentation please contact:

    Janice F. Almasi, Ph.D.

    Carol Lee Robertson Endowed Professor of Literacy

    University of Kentucky

    101 Taylor Education Building

    Lexington, KY 40506

    [email protected]

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S. K. (2012). Comprehension Strategies Instruction Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.


What are Strategies? Comprehension Strategies Instruction

“Strategies are actions an individual selects deliberately to attain a particular goal.”

--Almasi & Fullerton (2012, p. 1)

“Reading strategies are deliberate, goal-directed attempts to control and modify the reader’s efforts to decode text, understand words, and construct meanings of text.”

--Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris (2008, p. 368)

Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying the differences between reading skills and strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364-373.

Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S. K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.


Afflerbach Comprehension Strategies Instruction , P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364-373.


Comprehension research
Comprehension Research Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Where We’ve Been

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Comprehension research where we ve been pearson 2009
Comprehension Research: Where We’ve Been Comprehension Strategies Instruction (Pearson, 2009)

Cognitive

Revolution

  • Readers viewed as active participants in meaning construction process.

  • Experimental studies offered promising findings showing strategies-based interventions were successful at enhancing comprehension.

Comprehension

Not valued except

as a step toward text

memorization

1975

Pearson, P. D. (2009). The roots of reading comprehension instruction. In S. E. Israel & G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of reading comprehension research (pp. ). New York: Routledge.


Observational research 1970s
Observational Research: 1970s Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • Durkin (1978/1979)

    • Paucity of actual comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms.

    • Great amount of time was spent:

      • “Mentioning” (i.e., mentioning the skill students were supposed to practice)

      • “Practicing” (i.e., practicing the skill)

      • “Assessing” (i.e., giving directions to complete assignments and workbook pages)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Expert novice studies 1980s
Expert/Novice Studies: 1980s Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Expert Readers

Novice Readers

Focus on decoding individual words

Cannot adjust their reading rate

Are not aware of alternate strategies for enhancing their comprehension and memory of text

Are not adept at monitoring their own comprehension

  • Have rapid decoding skills

  • Have large vocabularies

  • Know a variety of strategies to enhance comprehension and memory of text

  • Know about text features and text structures

  • Have good phonemic awareness

Source: Paris, S. G., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of strategic readers. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 609-640). New York: Longman.


Fig. 1.5, p. 11 Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Possess a variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986,1989)

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.


Fig. 1.5, p. 11 Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Possess a variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986,1989)

Use Primitive

Routines

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Fig. 1.5, pp. 11, 19 Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Possess a variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Are able to

analyze reading

tasks to plan and

select strategies

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986,1989)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.


Unable to Transfer Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Strategy Use

To New Contexts

Uses Primitive

Routines

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986, 1989)

pp. 22-23

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Possess a Comprehension Strategies Instruction variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Are able to

analyze reading

tasks to plan and

select strategies

Are motivated to

use strategies

and have agency

Fig. 1.5, pp. 11-14

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986, 1989)

Persist

Confident

Attribute Success to Effort

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.


Unable to Transfer Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Strategy Use

To New Contexts

Uses Primitive

Routines

p. 23

Personal

attributions

do not support

strategy use

Give Up

Unconfident

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

Attribute Success to Luck

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Possess a Comprehension Strategies Instruction variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Are able to

analyze reading

tasks to plan and

select strategies

Are motivated to

employ strategies

and have agency

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986, 1989)

Fig. 1.5, pp. 11-13

Table 6.1, pp. 148-151

Table 7.3, pp. 236-237

Possess an extensive

knowledge base:

• Declarative

• Procedural

• Conditional

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.


Unable to Transfer Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Strategy Use

To New Contexts

Uses Primitive

Routines

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986, 1989)

Personal

attributions

do not support

strategy use

pp. 22-23

Possess an extensive

knowledge base:

• Declarative (What)

• Procedural (How)

• Conditional (Why)

Meager

knowledgebase

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Unable to Transfer Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Strategy Use

To New Contexts

Uses Primitive

Routines

Personal

attributions

do not support

strategy use

pp. 22-23

I don’t know how to do it!

Meager

knowledgebase

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

What am I supposed to do?

I don’t know when or why I should use this!

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Possess a Comprehension Strategies Instruction variety

of strategies for

accomplishing

tasks

Are able to

analyze reading

tasks to plan and

select strategies

Are motivated to

use strategies

and have agency

Good Strategy Users

(Pressley, 1986, 1989)

Fig. 1.5, p. 11

Possess an extensive

knowledge base:

• Declarative

• Procedural

• Conditional

Make use of

metacognitive factors

to regulate and

monitor comprehension

and performance

Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.


Unable to Transfer Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Strategy Use

To New Contexts

Uses Primitive

Routines

Personal

attributions

do not support

strategy use

pp. 22-23

Poor cognitive

monitoring and

metacognition

Meager

knowledgebase

Nonstrategic Readers

(Garner, 1987)

Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.


Comprehension research where we ve been
Comprehension Research: Comprehension Strategies Instruction Where We’ve Been

  • First Wave

    • Teach students individual strategies

      (e.g., predicting, monitoring, questioning, summarizing)

  • Second Wave

    • Teach students to use multiple strategies (e.g., reciprocal teaching)

Sources: Dole, Nokes &Drits (2009); Pressley (2000); Wilkinson & Son (2011)


Explicit instruction studies 1980s
Explicit Instruction Studies : 1980s Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • Examined effect of providing comprehension instruction for students

  • That body of research revealed that explicit instruction enhances students’ learning and their strategic and metacognitive awareness, particularly for struggling readers (e.g., Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson, 1991; Dole, Brown, & Trathen, 1996; Duffy, et al., 1987; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Pearson & Fielding, 1991; Pearson & Dole, 1987).

  • Little comprehension instruction still occurs in elementary classrooms (Fielding & Pearson, 1994; Pearson, & Dole, 1987; Pearson & Fielding, 1991; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983; Pressley, 2000)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Explicit instruction pearson dole 1987 pearson gallagher 1983
Explicit Comprehension Strategies Instruction Instruction(Pearson & Dole, 1987; Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)

Declarative Knowledge

What is it?

Explanation

  • Explicit

  • Instruction

  • Direct Explanation

  • In authentic context

  • Encourages flexible

  • strategy use

  • Gradually release

  • responsibility from

  • teacher to student

How do I do it?

Procedural Knowledge

Where, when, why should I do it?

Conditional

Knowledge

Modeling/Thinking Aloud

Guided Practice

Independence

Pearson, P. D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and a new conceptualization of instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 88(2), 151-165.

Pearson, P. D., & Gallagher, M. C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317-344.


Seminal early studies
Seminal Early Studies Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • Dole, Nokes, and Drits (2009) identified two studies that changed the face of reading instruction and provided a glimpse of what true strategies instruction could look like

    • Duffy, Roehler, Meloth, Vavrus, Book, Putnam, & Wesselman, (1986)

    • Duffy, Roehler, Sivan, Rackliffe, Book, Meloth, Vavrus, Wesselman, Putnam, & Bassiri(1987)

  • When teachers provided explicit explanations of what strategies were, when they should be used, why they should be used, and how to perform them students’ reading achievement on standardized, non-standardized and maintenance measures improved.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Comprehension research where we ve been1
Comprehension Research: Comprehension Strategies Instruction Where We’ve Been

  • Third Wave

    • Transactional Strategies Instruction (extended multiple strategies instruction to include flexible strategy use while readers transact with text)

Sources: Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Son, E. H. (2011). A dialogic turn in research on learning and teaching to comprehend. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4, pp. 359-387). New York: Routledge.


Research based evidence
Research-Based Evidence Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • Brown, Pressley, Van Meter, & Schuder (1996)

    • 60 2nd grade low achieving students

    • 1 year intervention (SAIL, non-SAIL)

Measures

▪ Strategies Interview

▪ Retellings

▪ Think Aloud Task

▪ Standardized Test of Reading Comprehension and Word Skills (Stanford Achievement Test, Forms J and K)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 18-37.


Treatment conditions brown pressley van meter schuder 1996
Treatment Conditions Comprehension Strategies Instruction (Brown, Pressley, Van Meter & Schuder, 1996)

Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 18-37.


Results brown pressley van meter schuder 1996
Results Comprehension Strategies Instruction (Brown, Pressley, Van Meter & Schuder, 1996)

Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 18-37.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Measures of Comprehension Comprehension Strategies Instruction

6 Tests covering material from each of the 6 basal reading selections:

10 Comprehension Questions (maximum score = 30)

▪ 4 questions (vocabulary and content-specific declarative knowledge)

▪ 2 questions (story’s central problem and resolution)

▪ 4 questions (literal and inferential related to important events in selection)

2 Tests before instruction

2 Tests during instructional sequence

2 Tests given 7 weeks after instruction ended

  • Dole, Brown, & Trathen (1996)

    • 67 fifth and sixth-grade at-risk readers

    • 5 week intervention

Dole, J. A., Brown, K. J., & Trathen, W. (1996). The effects of strategy instruction on the comprehension performance of at-risk students. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(1), 62-88.


Results dole brown trathen 1996
Results Comprehension Strategies Instruction (Dole, Brown & Trathen, 1996)

Dole, J. A., Brown, K. J., & Trathen, W. (1996). The effects of strategy instruction on the comprehension performance of at-risk students. Reading Research Quarterly, 31(1), 62-88.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


U s dept of ed recommendations whatworks ed gov publications practiceguides
U.S. Dept. of Ed. Recommendations Comprehension Strategies Instruction whatworks.ed.gov/publications/practiceguides

STRONG EVIDENCE

Teach Students How to Use

Comprehension Strategies

Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N. K., Pearson, P. D., Schatschneider, C., & Torgesen, J. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: A practice guide (NCEE 2010-4038). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from whatworks.ed.gov/publications/practiceguides.


Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction Model Comprehension Strategies Instruction (Almasi & Fullerton, 2012)

Enhances Personal Attributions and Motivation

Fig. 2.1, pp. 36-57

Create a Safe and Risk Free Environment to Enhance Motivation and Risk Taking

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, Monitoring, and Transfer to New Contexts

Enhances Knowledge Overcomes: - Meager knowledge base

- Use of primitive routines

- Poor Comp Monitoring

Provide Explicit Instruction

Create Opportunities for Student Verbalization

Reduce Processing Demands

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, and Transfer to New Contexts

Source: Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S, K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford


Comprehension research1
Comprehension Research Comprehension Strategies Instruction

Where We Are

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Comprehension research where we are
Comprehension Research: Comprehension Strategies Instruction Where We Are

  • Fourth Wave

    • Dialogic Approaches

    • Embed strategy instruction in content domains (e.g., CORI, In-Depth Expanded Application of Science, Reading Apprenticeship)

    • Use classroom discussion to foster comprehension

      • Aesthetic/Expressive Stance (e.g., Book Club, Grand Conversations, Literature Circles)

      • Efferent Stance (e.g., Instruction Conversations, QTA, Jr. Great Books)

      • Argumentation (e.g., Accountable Talk, Collaborative Reasoning)

Sources: Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Son, E. H. (2011). A dialogic turn in research on learning and teaching to comprehend. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4, pp. 359-387). New York: Routledge.


Content knowledge vs strategy instruction
Content Knowledge vs. Strategy Instruction Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • There is controversy surrounding the efficacy of comprehension strategies instruction for enhancing students' achievement.  Some have argued that content knowledge rather than strategies instruction plays a larger role in achievement.  Others maintain that the process-oriented nature of strategies instruction leads to more efficacious learning.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Content based approaches
Content-Based Approaches Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • McKeown, Beck, & Blake (2009)

    • Strategy Condition (summarizing, predicting, drawing inferences, question generation, comprehension monitoring)

    • Content Condition (QtA: general meaning-based questions about text)

    • Y1 (Expository text) Y2 (Narrative)

    • Results

      • No difference on SVT measure (Y1 or Y2)

      • Content students produced longer and higher quality recalls (Y1 and Y2)

      • No difference on measures of comprehension monitoring and strategies task (Y1 and Y2)

Participants:

Intact 5th grade classrooms

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Source: McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. K. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218-253.


Worries
Worries . . . Comprehension Strategies Instruction

  • Product vs. Process

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Anna Isabella Ritchie, Mrs. Dymond (1885)

  • Chinese Proverb


Worries1
Worries . . . fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Product vs. Process

  • Participants:

    • Who benefits?

  • Epistemological considerations:

    • What counts as knowledge?

  • Power/Authority:

    • Whose interpretation of text is privileged?

    • Whose “way” of using strategies is privileged?

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Striving readers evaluation
Striving Readers Evaluation fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (2013). Reading intervention in middle and high schools: Implementation fidelity, teacher efficacy, and student achievement. Reading Psychology, 34(1), 26-58.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Lsc impact study
LSC Impact Study fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Research Questions

  • 1. What is the impact of the LSC on the reading achievement, strategy use, and motivation of struggling adolescent readers?

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc certification
LSC Certification fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc classroom model
LSC Classroom Model fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Supplemental Instruction

  • Class Length: 50-90 minutes, 50-60 minutes for LSC (no more than 300 minutes per week)

  • Class Size: 10-15 students


Lsc classroom model1
LSC Classroom Model fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Strategies Taught

  • Word Identification

  • Visual Imagery

  • Self-Questioning

  • LINCS Vocabulary Strategy & Routines

  • Fundamentals of Sentence Writing

  • Fundamentals of Paraphrasing and Summarizing

  • Paraphrasing Strategy

  • Inference Strategy

  • Possible Selves

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction Model fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Almasi & Fullerton, 2012)

Enhances Personal Attributions and Motivation

Fig. 2.1, pp. 36-57

Create a Safe and Risk Free Environment to Enhance Motivation and Risk Taking

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, Monitoring, and Transfer to New Contexts

Enhances Knowledge Overcomes: - Meager knowledge base

- Use of primitive routines

- Poor Comp Monitoring

Provide Explicit Instruction

Create Opportunities for Student Verbalization

Reduce Processing Demands

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, and Transfer to New Contexts

Source: Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S, K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford


Lsc impact study1
LSC Impact Study fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Research Design

  • Multiple Cohort Pretest/Posttest Control Group Design

  • Stratified Random Assignment to Condition within Schools

  • Sixth- and ninth-grade students two or more grades below grade level in 21 rural schools

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc student demographics
LSC Student Demographics fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Student outcome measures
Student Outcome Measures fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Achievement Test: GRADE

  • Reading Strategies Use Survey: MARSI (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2000)

  • Motivation Survey: MRQ (Wigfield & Guthrie, 1997)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc analytic approach hierarchical linear models hlm
LSC Analytic Approach: fish and you feed him for a lifetime.Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM)

  • 2-Level HLM: Students within Schools

School #1

School #2

School #X

Intv

Intv

Control

Control

Intv

Control

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Student

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc 6 th grade student achievement y1 and y4 cantrell almasi et al 2010
LSC fish and you feed him for a lifetime.6th Grade Student Achievement (Y1 and Y4) (Cantrell, Almasi, et al., 2010)

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Lsc implementation
LSC Implementation fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (2013). Reading intervention in middle and high schools: Implementation fidelity, teacher efficacy, and student achievement. Reading Psychology, 34(1), 26-58.


Lsc 9 th grade student achievement y1 and y4 cantrell almasi et al 2010
LSC fish and you feed him for a lifetime.9th Grade Student Achievement (Y1 and Y4) (Cantrell, Almasi, et al., 2010)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Lsc 6 th grade student motivation mrq y1 and y4 cantrell almasi et al 2010
LSC fish and you feed him for a lifetime.6th Grade Student Motivation (MRQ) Y1 and Y4 (Cantrell, Almasi, et al., 2010)

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Lsc 9 th grade student motivation mrq y1 and y4 cantrell almasi et al 2010
LSC fish and you feed him for a lifetime.9th Grade Student Motivation (MRQ) Y1 and Y4 (Cantrell, Almasi, et al., 2010)

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Striving readers
Striving Readers fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Year 5 Follow-Up Study

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Research question
Research Question fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • What are differences in reading achievement and motivation for students who participate in the Learning Strategies Curriculum intervention for two years as compared to students who participate for just one year, when the students still are struggling with reading after one year of intervention?

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


6 th grade achievement
6 fish and you feed him for a lifetime.th Grade Achievement

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


6 th grade achievement1
6 fish and you feed him for a lifetime.th Grade Achievement

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Naep 6 th grade reading scale scores in kentucky 2002 2011
NAEP 6 fish and you feed him for a lifetime.th Grade Reading Scale Scores in Kentucky 2002-2011

16

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Naep 8 th grade reading scale scores in kentucky 2002 2011
NAEP 8 fish and you feed him for a lifetime.th Grade Reading Scale Scores in Kentucky 2002-2011

23

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Lsc conclusions
LSC Conclusions fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • The professional development model was effective in supporting teachers’ implementation of LSC at high levels.

  • The LSC was effective at enhancing students’ reading overall.

  • More specifically, the LSC had a statistically significant impact for 9th grade achievement.

  • The LSC had significant impacts on motivation for both 6th and 9th grades.

  • To a lesser extent, the LSC had a positive effect on 6th grade students’ strategy use.

  • A second year of intervention may be beneficial for 6th graders, particularly minority students and those who are not in Special Education.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.


Narrative comprehension project
Narrative Comprehension Project fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences

Lorch, E., Milich, R., Almasi, J. F., van den Broek, P., & Boyd, A. (2011). A Narrative Comprehension Intervention for Elementary School Children At-Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Children at r isk for adhd
Children fish and you feed him for a lifetime.At Risk for ADHD

  • Inattentive

  • Impulsive

  • Overactive

  • Off-task

  • Poor short-term memory

  • Empirically validated treatments (i.e., stimulant medication, behavior modification) do not address problems with higher order cognitive processing skills (i.e., comprehension)

  • 1-2 children per classroom

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Rationale
Rationale fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Impairments are interrelated

  • Appear to result in problems in building coherent, goal-based story representations and in using relevant information and causal structure to guide story recall and inference making.

  • Medication appears to be insufficient to address these problems.

  • Interventions need to be developed that focus on the narrative comprehension deficits that may be contributing to the academic difficulties of children with ADHD.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Purpose
Purpose fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • The goal of the project is todesign, implement and pilot test targeted academic intervention strategies that can lessen story comprehension difficulties.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Goal fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Independent and efficacious use of narrative comprehension strategies in a variety of contexts.

  • To achieve the goal, the instructors will model the use of the strategy and the children will practice the strategy in groups with the instructor’s help (scaffolding) until the instructor has faded scaffolding to the point in which children can use the skills on their own.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Ways to Gradually Release Cognitive Responsibility fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

(Almasi & Fullerton, 2012)

Amount of Cognitive Activity Required by Text

Semiotic (Less) Linguistic (More)

Events Movies WordlessBooks Picture Books Text

Less

More

Teacher + Class

Small Grp

Trios

Pairs

Individual

Amount of Student’s Cognitive

Responsibility

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky

Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S. K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York:

Guilford Press.


Participants
Participants fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Addresses narrative comprehension difficulties that are separate from any difficulty decoding

  • No decoding demands placed on the children

  • Students at risk for ADHD

  • 2nd and 3rd graders

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Specific areas of difficulty
Specific Areas of Difficulty fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Understanding the causal relations among story events (Landau, Lorch, & Milich, 1992; Lorch et al., 2000; Lorch et al., 2004; Sanchez et al.,1999)

  • Using the goal structure (GAO) of a story to build a coherent story representation (Flory, Milich, Lorch, Hayden, Strange, & Welsh, 2006; Renz, Lorch, Milich, Lemberger, Bodner, & Welsh, 2003)

  • Recognizing the important information in a story and using this information to guide recall (Flake, Lorch, & Milich, 2007; Lorch, Deiner et al., 1999; Lorch, Lorch, Calderhead, Dunlap, & Freer, 2010; Lorch, O’Neil et al., 2004; and Lorch, Sanchez et al., 1999)

  • Making coherence inferences about story information and monitoring ongoing understanding of the story (Berthiaume, Lorch, & Milich, 2010)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky fish and you feed him for a lifetime.


Critical Elements of Strategy Instruction Model fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Almasi & Fullerton, 2012)

Enhances Personal Attributions and Motivation

Fig. 2.1, pp. 36-57

Create a Safe and Risk Free Environment to Enhance Motivation and Risk Taking

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, Monitoring, and Transfer to New Contexts

Enhances Knowledge Overcomes: - Meager knowledge base

- Use of primitive routines

- Poor Comp Monitoring

Provide Explicit Instruction

Create Opportunities for Student Verbalization

Reduce Processing Demands

Enhances Motivation, Knowledge, and Transfer to New Contexts

Source: Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S, K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford


Measures
Measures fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Ease of mastery for participants

  • Participant ratings and interviews

  • Instructor ratings

  • Feedback from teachers

    • Teacher focus groups in Year 1

    • Ratings and interviews in Years 2 and 3

  • Independent observer ratings

  • Measures of student comprehension efficacy

  • School records and standardized testing measures (years 2 and 3)

  • Pre-test and post-test measures

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Measures of iterative process feasibility factors
Measures of Iterative Process: Feasibility Factors fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Ease of mastery

  • Usability

  • Difficulty

  • Appeal/Satisfaction

  • Effectiveness

  • Efficacy

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


What we did right now was . . . fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Learning how to find goals was . . .

If someone asked me to identify the goal in a story . . .

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Pretest posttest measures
Pretest/Posttest Measures fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Free recall protocols of television program and audiotaped story

    • important events

    • characters’ goals, actions and outcomes

    • identification of causal connections between event

    • inferences

  • Cued recall of television program and audiotaped story

  • Narration of wordless picture book (identification of initiating events that motivate goals, maintenance of goals by explicitly linking attempts and outcomes to a goal plan, and statements of causal connections and inferences that link events)

  • Creation of stories (evaluated for inclusion of initiating events, goals, maintenance of characters’ goals, and causal connections between story events)

  • Story comprehension self-efficacy

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Instructional lesson framework
Instructional Lesson Framework fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Establish Group Rules

Provide Explicit Instruction Using Concrete Activity (Balloon Narrative/Magician Narrative)

Teacher Modeling and Guided Practice with Text (e.g., video, wordless picture book, picture book)

Paired Practice with text

Evaluation #1

Teacher Modeling and Guided Practice with alternate text

Paired Practice

Evaluation #2

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


I want fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Making Identifying Goals Concrete

?

ATTEMPT

GOAL

OUTCOME: FAIL

OUTCOME: YES

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Procedural Knowledge Related to Identifying Goal Sequences fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Balloon Narrative fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

as Ongoing

Concrete

Experience

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


I want fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

?

Transfer to

Text

ATTEMPT

GOAL

OUTCOME: FAIL

OUTCOME: YES

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky fish and you feed him for a lifetime.


DePaola fish and you feed him for a lifetime., T. (1978). Pancakes for breakfast. New York: Harcourt.


Goals for causal connections module
Goals for Causal Connections Module fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • To help student learn to:

    • Identify what causes and events are

    • Identify simple causes and events

    • Identify causal chains

    • Identify causes (and events) and the important events that drive causal chains

    • Identify single cause of multiple events

    • Identify distal causes

    • Identify distal causes that illustrate important events in a story

    • Use causal connections to retell story events

    • Use causal connections to help identify which events in a a story are more important than others

    • Use causal connections to retrieve story events

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Single episode trabasso van den broek 1985
Single Episode fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Trabasso & van den Broek, 1985)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Simple cause event
Simple Cause/Event fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Simple cause event1
Simple Cause/Event fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Successive episodes chaining trabasso van den broek 1985
Successive Episodes (Chaining) fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Trabasso & van den Broek, 1985)

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Outcome embedding trabasso van den broek 1985
Outcome Embedding fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Trabasso & van den Broek, 1985)

A12

O12

A22

O22

Outcome embedding

depends on success or

failure of goals and if the

outcome leads to the creation

of a new goal . If the outcome is a failure

and leads to a subordinate goal (G21) then

a goal hierarchy results.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Chaining
Chaining fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Single cause multiple events
Single Cause/Multiple Events fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Distal cause
Distal Cause fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Comprehension research2
Comprehension Research fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

Where We Need to Go

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


What i have learned
What I Have Learned . . . fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Comprehension is not a unitary construct

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


Scatterplot of the Relationship between Non-word Reading fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

and Reading Comprehension for 7 to 10 Year-Old Children

(Nation, 2005)

Good Comprehension

Poor Decoding

Good Comprehension

Good Decoding

Poor Comprehension

Poor Decoding

Poor Comprehension

Good Decoding

Source: Nation, K. (2005). Children’s reading comprehension difficulties. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 248-266). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.


Reading proficiencies of fourth and fifth grade readers leach scarborough rescorla 2003
Reading Proficiencies of Fourth and Fifth Grade Readers fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Leach, Scarborough & Rescorla, 2003)

Source: Leach, J. M., Scarborough, H. S., & Rescorla, L.(2003). Late-emerging reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 211-224.


Profiles of struggling readers riddle buly valencia 2002 valencia 2011
Profiles of Struggling Readers fish and you feed him for a lifetime.(Riddle Buly & Valencia, 2002; Valencia, 2011)

Sources:

Riddle Buly, M., & Valencia, S. W. (2002). Below the bar: Profiles of students who fail state reading assessments. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(3), 219-239.

Valencia, S. W. (2011). Reader profiles and reading disabilities. In A. McGill-Franzen & R. L. Allington (Eds.), Handbook of reading disability research (pp. 25-35). New York: Routledge.


What i have learned1
What I Have Learned . . . fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Comprehension is not a unitary construct

  • Particularity is essential

  • Interventions must be matched to specific children

  • We need new assessments of comprehension

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


References
References fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Almasi, J. F., & Fullerton, S. K. (2012). Teaching strategic processes in reading (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

  • Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Buckman, M. (in press). The impact of supplemental instruction on low-achieving adolescents’ reading engagement. Journal of Educational Research.

  • Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (2013). Reading intervention in middle and high schools: Implementation fidelity, teacher efficacy, and student achievement. Reading Psychology, 34(1), 26-58.

  • Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., Rintamaa, M., & Madden, A. (2010). The impact of a strategy-based intervention on the comprehension and strategy use of struggling adolescent readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 257-280.

  • Cantrell, S. C., Almasi, J. F., Carter, J. C., & Rintamaa, M. (in preparation). The impact of supplemental reading instruction on struggling adolescents’ reading achievement, motivation, and strategy use. Unpublished manuscript.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


References1
References fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • Dole, J. A., Nokes, J. D., & Drits, D. (2009). Cognitive strategy instruction. In S. E. Israel & G. G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 347-372). New York: Routledge.

  • Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., Meloth, M. S., Vavrus, L. G., Book, C., Putnam, J., & Wesselman, R. (1986). The relationship between explicit verbal explanations during reading instruction and student awareness and achievement: A study of reading teacher effects. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(3), 237-252.

  • Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., Sivan, E., Rackliffe, G., Book, C., Meloth, M. S., Vavrus, L. G., Wesselman, R., Putnam, J., & Bassiri, D. (1987). Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(3), 347-368.

  • Durkin, D. (1978/1979). What classroom observations reveal about reading comprehension instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 14, 481-533.

  • Edmonds, M. S., Vaughn, S. Wexler, J., Reutebuch, C., Tackett, K. K., Schnakenberg, J. W. (2009). A synthesis of reading interventions and effects on reading comprehension outcomes for older struggling readers. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 262-300.

  • Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P., & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with learning disabilities: A review of research. Review of Educational Research, 71(2), 279-320.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


References2
References fish and you feed him for a lifetime.

  • National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (Report of the subgroups). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

  • Paris, S. G., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of strategic readers. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, and P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 609-640). New York: Longman.

  • Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. 3, pp. 545-561. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Pressley, M. (1986). The relevance of the good strategy user model to the teaching of mathematics. Educational Psychologist, 21, 139-161.

  • Pressley, M., Symons, S., Snyder, B. L., & Cariglia-Bull, T. (1989). Strategy instruction comes of age. Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 16-30.

  • Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N. K., Pearson, P. D., Schatschneider, C., & Torgesen, J. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: A practice guide (NCEE 2010-4038). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from whatworks.ed.gov/publications/practiceguides.

  • Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Son, E. H. (2011). A dialogic turn in research on learning and teaching to comprehend. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4, pp. 359-387). New York: Routledge.

Janice F. Almasi, University of Kentucky


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