Chapter 3 2 notes
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Chapter 3.2 Notes. Rate in Fluids. Rates in fluid systems describe the motion of liquids and gases . Fluids in motion have speed and acceleration; however we use two different rates to describe how quickly fluids flow – volume flow rate and mass flow rate.

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Chapter 3.2 Notes

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Chapter 3 2 notes

Chapter 3.2 Notes

Rate in Fluids


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • Rates in fluid systems describe the motion of liquids and gases.

  • Fluids in motion have speed and acceleration; however we use two different rates to describe how quickly fluids flow – volume flow rate and mass flow rate.


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • V represents the volume of fluid in a container.

  • The volume flow rate is the change in volume per unit time.

  • represents volume flow rate

  • Equation for volume flow rate = change in volume / time


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • If the volume flow rate of the oxygen in the shuttle is 16,800 gallons per minute and the tank can hold 143,000 gallons, how long can the shuttle supply oxygen?

  • Vfr = rV / t

  • 16,800 gal/min = 143,000 gal / t

  • t = 143,000 gal/min /16,800 gal

  • t = 8.51 min


Chapter 3 2 notes

STOP!

Algebra Lesson


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • The mass flow rate is the mass of fluid moved per unit time.

  • represents the mass flow rate

  • The equation for mass flow rate = change in mass/time


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • If the shuttle’s fuel tank can hold 7000 grams of hydrogen and is consumed during the first 7 minutes of flight, what is the mass flow rate?

  • Mfr = mass / time

  • Mfr = 7000 grams / 7 min

  • Mfr = 1000 grams/min


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • Methods for measuring volume and mass flow rates vary, depending on the situation.

  • The simplest, most direct method to find average flow rate is to collect fluid and measure the amount of fluid collected over time.


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • Flowmeters measure the average flow rate of fluids by measuring pressure and velocity and calculating the flow rate.

  • Flowmeters use indirect methods to measure flow rates so that they do not interrupt the flow.


Flow meter demo

Flow Meter Demo


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • Volume flow rate equation using speed = area x speed

  • Mass flow rate equation using speed = density x area x speed

  • To find cross sectional area of a pipe use this equation = pi x r2


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • If the pipe is 18 meters in diameter and the speed of the liquid is 24 m/s, what is the volume flow rate?

  • A = pi x r2

  • r = d/2 = 18/2 = 9 m

  • A = 3.14 x 92 = 254.34 m2

  • Vfr = Area x speed

  • Vfr = 254.34 m2 x 24 m/s

  • Vfr = 6104.16 m3/s


Chapter 3 2 notes

  • If the mass density is .5 g/L, the diameter of the pipe is 10 meters, and the speed is 190 m/s, what is the mass flow rate?

  • A = pi x r2

  • r = d/2 = 10/2 = 5 m

  • A = 3.14 x 52 = 78.5 m2

  • Vfr = Area x speed x density

  • Vfr = 78.5 m2 x 190 m/s x .5 g/L

  • Vfr = 7457.50 g/s


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