AGUS HARYANTO 01 March 2010. Objectives. Examine the moving boundary work or P.dV work. Identify the first law of thermodynamics for closed (fixed mass) systems. Develop the general energy balance for closed systems. Define the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure.
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01 March 2010
Wb = F.s
Wb = F.ds
Wb = PA.ds
Wb = P.dV
In a car engine, the boundary work done by the expanding hot gases is used to overcome friction between the piston and the cylinder, to push atmospheric air out of the way, and to rotate the crankshaft.
A rigid tank contains air at 500 kPa and 150°C. As a result of heat transfer to the surroundings, the temperature and pressure inside the tank drop to 65°C and 400 kPa, respectively. Determine the boundary work done during this process.
P-V diagram of the process is shown.
The boundary work can be determined :
A frictionless piston–cylinder device contains 10 lbm of steam at 60 psia and 320F. Heat is now transferred to the steam until the temperature reaches 400F. If the piston is not attached to a shaft and its mass is constant, determine the work done by the steam during this process.
AnalysisThe pressure of the steam remains constant during this process since both the atmospheric pressure and the weight of the piston remain constant. For a constant-pressure process (Mind that V = mv):
From the superheated vapor table (Table A–6E), the specific volumes are determined to be v1 = 7.4863 ft3/lbm at state 1 (60 psia, 320oF), v2 = 8.3548 ft3/lbm at state 2 (60 psia, 400oF). Substitutingthese values yields:
A piston–cylinder device initially contains 0.4 m3 of air at 100 kPa and 80°C. The air is now compressed to 0.1 m3 in such a way that the temperature inside the cylinder remains constant. Determine the work done during this process.
Pressure and volume are often related by PVn = C, where n and C are constants.
For ideal gas (PV = mRT), then:
Special cases (n = 1), then: (isothermal)
Final pressure = 200 + 120 = 320 kPa
(is the net work output)
(b) To find T2 we need other property. Work is only electrical work, which is determined from:
Apply the Equation resulted in (a)
Finally, from Table A-6:
(c) Under stated assumptions and observations, the energy balance on the system can be expressed as: