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Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids . Petr Pravec Astronomical Institute AS CR, Ond řejov Presented at MACE 2006 in Vienna, Austria 2006 May 14. There is an abundant population of small binary asteroids from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....

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Photometric survey for asynchronous binary asteroids

Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids

Petr Pravec

Astronomical Institute AS CR, Ondřejov

Presented at MACE 2006 in Vienna, Austria

2006 May 14


There is an abundant population of small binary asteroids from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....

Studied with the photometric (lightcurve) technique:

1994-2004: NEA binary population studied.

2004- : The survey extended to the MB ...


Binastphotsurvey
BinAstPhotSurvey from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....

Small Asynchronous binaries

  • BinAstPhotSurvey (Photometric Survey for Asynchronous Binary Asteroids). A consortium of several experienced asteroid photometric stations in Europe, USA, Canada and Australia. See page and references therein.

    The key element of the Survey is a collaboration of the great asteroid photometrists:

    D. Pray (Carbuncle Hill), B. Warner (PDO), D. Higgins (Hunters Hill), P. Kusnirak (Ondrejov), A. Galad et al. (Modra), W. Cooney et al. (SRO), V. Reddy and R. Dyvig (Badlands), P. Brown et al. (Elginfield), Yu. Krugly et al. (Kharkiv), R. Stephens (GMARS), R. Koff (Antelope Hills), N. Gaftonyuk (Simeiz), and others.

    Since December 2004 – covered 100+ asteroids with a proper strategy for detection of binaries and modeling of selection effects. Found 10+ binaries.

  • Ryan et al., 2004 (Vestoids)

  • Radar (limited to studies of NEAs)

    Small Synchronous binaries - Behrend et al., 2006; and others

    Large/wide binaries – studied by AO technique, direct imaging (HST)


What is an asynchronous binary asteroid
What is an Asynchronous Binary Asteroid from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....

  • System of two bodies with at least one of them rotating non-synchronously with the orbital motion.

  • Showing two (or three) lightcurve components that are linearly additive.

    The technique ....


Deconvolution of async binary asteroid lc
Deconvolution of async binary asteroid LC from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....


Nea binary population

NEA binary population from near-Earth orbits to the main belt ....

Studied 1994-2004

(Pravec et al. 2006, Icarus 181, 63-93, and references therein)


Fraction of nea binaries selection effects had to be modeled
Fraction of NEA binaries - selection effects had to be modeled

Biases for

  • Satellites larger than ~0.18 Dprim

  • Closer systems (shorter Porb)

    Resulting mean detection probability within the lightcurve survey for NEA binaries (Dprim>0.3 km, Dsec/Dprim0.18):

    39%


Nea binary population1
NEA binary population modeled

15  4 % of NEAs are binary


Nea binaries characteristics 1
NEA binaries characteristics (1) modeled

Main characteristics (for a bulk of the population):

Primaries

  • fast rotating, spheroidal

    Secondaries

  • mostly synchronous (Psec = Porb; exceptions in wider systems)

  • diverse shapes (eq. axial ratio range from 1:1 to 2:1)

  • Dsec/Dprim 0.5

    The characteristics hold for small binaries in MB+MC orbits as well.





Nea binaries characteristics 2
NEA binaries characteristics (2) modeled

Total specific angular momentum

Primary is a fast rotator, additional angular momentum contained in the orbital motion (and secondary’s rotation).

Ltot is very close to, but not generally exceeding, the critical limit for a single body (Ltot ~ Lcrit)

Suggests that

  • NEA binaries formed at the critical spin rate

  • little or no angular momentum has been added after the binary is formed.

    If precursors spun-up to fission by YORP, the increase in angular momentum must be *shut off* after the binary is formed.

    A study of Ltot on a larger sample (NEA+MC+MB binaries) suggests that Ltotis close to Lcrit over the whole range of heliocentric distances ....


Binary population from neas to inner mbas

Binary population modeledfrom NEAs to inner MBAs

Small NEA+MC+MB binaries studied 2004-

Small Asynchronous binaries – BinAstPhotSurvey; also Ryan et al., 2004

Small Synchronous binaries - Behrend et al., 2006; and others

Large/wide binaries – studied by AO technique, direct imaging (HST)


The population of small asynchronous binary asteroids is not confined to near-Earth orbits only ....

Small binaries in the Main Belt and Mars-crossing orbits are similar in most characteristics to NEA binaries. It suggests common origin/evolution mechanisms ....


Characteristics of binaries multiparameter space
Characteristics of binaries – multiparameter space confined to near-Earth orbits only ....

Models studied.

Data have to be displayed in

2-D projections.


Size ratio vs primary size
Size ratio vs primary size confined to near-Earth orbits only ....


Primary spin vs size
Primary spin vs size confined to near-Earth orbits only ....


Total angular momentum
Total Angular Momentum confined to near-Earth orbits only ....

αL = Ltot/Lcrit.sp.

where Ltot is a total angular momentum of the system, Lcrit is angular momentum of an equivalent (i.e., the same total mass and volume), critically spinning sphere.

A “rubble pile” with only compressive strength can resist rotational disruption up to values of αL~ 1.3 (Harris and Pravec, in prep.)

Systems originating from critically spinning “rubble piles” are expected to have αLbetween 1.0 and 1.3, if no angular momentum was added or removed since creation of the system.


Angular momentum ratio vs size
Angular momentum ratio vs size confined to near-Earth orbits only ....


Binary characteristics concluding remarks
Binary characteristics confined to near-Earth orbits only ....- concluding remarks

The population of small binaries (Dp <= 10 km) with Ltot~Lcrit extends from near-Earth to (at least) inner main belt.

  • Suggests that planetary encounters are *not* the primary cause of their formation.

    If binaries were created by a spin-up mechanism, it must be “shut off” after creation of the binary; no significant amount of angular momentum was added after creation.

    Is a “gap” in Ds /Dp between 0.5 and 0.8 real or just a selection effect? (May there be tidally evolved systems, e.g., fully synchronous, or distant secondaries? Such would be difficult to resolve with the current techniques.)


Binastphotsurvey opportunity for experienced photometrists

BinAstPhotSurvey confined to near-Earth orbits only ....- Opportunity for experienced photometrists

Our consortium is open to photometrists able to keep a strategy of the Survey


Binastphotsurvey opportunity for experienced photometrists1
BinAstPhotSurvey confined to near-Earth orbits only ....- Opportunity for experienced photometrists

Interested to study asynchronous binaries?

We welcome you to join us, if

  • You are an experienced asteroid photometrist.

  • You can measure asteroids with V>15 with errors ≤ 0.03 mag.

  • You can identify/eliminate error sources (e.g., interferring background stars) down to a level of 0.01 mag.

  • You can take long series or linked data.

  • You can reduce data fast (normally within 24 h since acquisition) so that observational programs on your and other collaborating stations within the Survey may be updated promptly.

  • You will want to learn more on the strategy of the Survey in a course of your collaborative work within the consortium.

    Following the strategy of the Survey is necessary to get a high efficiency and reproducibility of the observations within the Survey.




High quality flatfield another must for a moving target
High-quality measurements (2)Flatfield– another *must* for a moving target

Targeted asteroid (or comparison stars, if tracked on the asteroid) drift over the FOV during night. Flatfield imperfections (e.g., a slope in the flatfield) may cause observational artifacts in the measurements.

Elimination of stray light is quite necessary as well – it cannot be flatfielded in a normal way.

Those problems occur at larger, professional telescopes as well.


The end

THE END measurements (2)

Thank you!


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