Part two splanchnology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 53

PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY. INTRODUCTION ( 概述 ) THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM ( 消化 ) THE R ESPIRATORY S YSTEM ( 呼吸 ) THE URINARY SYSTEM ( 泌尿 ) THE GENITAL SYSTEM ( 生殖 ) THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ( 内分泌 ). Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION. A. Viscera: 1. Alimentary (digestive) system ( 消化系统 )

Download Presentation

PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Part two splanchnology

PART TWO SPLANCHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION (概述)

THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM (消化)

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM(呼吸)

THE URINARY SYSTEM (泌尿)

THE GENITAL SYSTEM (生殖)

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (内分泌)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Chapter 1 introduction

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

A. Viscera:

1. Alimentary (digestive) system(消化系统)

2. Respiratory system(呼吸系统)

3. Urinary system(泌尿系统)

4. Genital (reproductive) system(生殖系统)

5. Endocrine system(内分泌系统)

B. Functions:

1. To fulfil the metabolism(履行代谢)

2. Maintain the life of the species(延续种族)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


C general structure of the viscera

C. General Structure of the Viscera

1.The tubular viscus(中空性器官)

1) mucous membrane (mucosa) (粘膜)

2) submucosa

(粘膜下层)

3) muscular coats

(肌层)

4) adventitia (serosa)

(外膜)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

C. General Structure of the Viscera

2.The parenchymatous organ(实质性器官)

hilum (porta) (门)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


D the reference line of the thorax

D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线)

1. anterior median line (前正中线)

2. sternal line

(胸骨线)

3. parasternal line (胸骨旁线)

4. midclavicular line (锁骨中线)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线)

5. anterior axillary line (腋前线)

6. middle axillary line (腋中线)

7. posterior axillary line (腋后线)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

D. The Reference Line of the Thorax (胸部标志线)

8. scapular line

(肩胛线)

9. posterior median line

(后正中线)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

E. The Abdominal Regions(腹部分区)

Rt. hypochon-

driac region

右季肋区

Epigastric

region

腹上区

Lt hypochon-

driac region

左季肋区

Right lateral

region

右外侧区

Umbilical

region

脐区

Left lateral

region

左外侧区

Right iliac

region

右髂区

Hypogastric

region

腹下区

Left iliac

region

左髂区

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Chapter 2 alimentary digestive system

Chapter 2ALIMENTARY (DIGESTIVE ) SYSTEM

A. Division

1. Alimentary canal (消化管):

1) upper alimentary canal (上消化管):

mouth to duodenum(口 - 十二指肠)

2) lower alimentary canal (下消化管)

jejunum to anus(空肠 - 肛门)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

ALIMENTARY (DIGESTIVE ) SYSTEM

2. The alimentary glands(消化腺):

salivary glands (唾液腺)

liver (肝)

pancreas (胰)

B. Functions

1. ingestion(摄入) of food

2. absorption(吸收) of the nutrient components (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water)

3. defecation(排便) : the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

Section 1 Oral Cavity

A. The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭)

B. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


A the oral vestibule

A. The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭)

1. Oral lips(口唇):

1) upper lip(上唇):

philtrum(人中)

frenulum of upper lip(上唇系带)

[first aid acupoint 急救穴位]

[cleft lip (hare lip) 唇裂]

2) lower lip(下唇)

frenulum of lower lip(下唇系带)

2. Nasolabial sulcus

(鼻唇沟)

3. Cheek(颊)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral vestibule

The Oral Vestibule (口腔前庭)

1. The palate (腭)

1) hard palate (硬腭)

2) soft palate (软腭)

a. uvula (腭垂)

b. palatine velum (腭帆)

c. palatoglossal arch (腭舌弓)

d. palatopharyngeal arch

(腭咽弓) [cleft of palate 腭裂]

e. isthmus of fauces (咽峡)

[sopor酣睡] [apnea 呼吸暂停]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


B the oral cavity proper

B. The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

2. Theteeth (dentes) (牙)

1)Composition

a. crown of tooth (牙冠)

b. neck of tooth (牙颈)

c. root of tooth (牙根)

d. dental cavity (pulp cavity) (牙腔)

e. root canal (牙根管)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

2) Classification of the teeth (牙齿分类)

a. deciduous teeth(乳牙) 20

Eruption (萌出): from 6th to 24 m.

b. permanent teeth(恒牙) 32

Eruption (萌出): from 6th to 21 yrs.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

i. incisive (切牙) deciduous teeth 2, permanent teeth2

ii. canine (尖牙) deciduous tooth 1, permanent tooth 1

iii. premolar (前磨牙) permanent teeth2

iv. molars (磨牙) deciduous teeth 2, permanent teeth 3

乳牙

牙式

I-V

恒牙

牙式

1 - 8

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper1

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

3)Structure of the teeth

a. dentine (牙本质)

b. enamel (釉质)

c. cement (牙骨质)

d. dental pulp (牙髓)

e. periodontal membrane (牙周膜)

f. alveolar bone (牙槽)

g. gingiva (牙龈) [caries 龋齿]

[determination of age 年龄鉴定]

[gum bleeding 牙龈出血]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper2

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

3. The tongue (舌)

1)Division

a. apex of tongue (舌尖)

b. body of tongue (舌体)

c. root of tongue (舌根)

d. dorsum of tongue

(舌背)

i. terminal sulcus (界沟)

ii. foramen cecum of tongue(舌盲孔)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper3

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

2)Lingual mucousmembrane(舌粘膜)

a. papillae of tongue

(舌乳头)

i. filiform papillae

(丝状乳头)

ii. fungiform papillae (菌状乳头)taste

iii. foliate papillae (叶状乳头)taste

iv. vallate papillae (轮廓乳头) taste

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

b. lingual tonsil

(舌扁桃体)

c. septum of tongue

(舌中隔)

d. frenulum of tongue

(舌系带)

e. sublingual caruncle

(舌下阜)

f. sublingual fold

(舌下襞)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper4

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

3) Muscles of tongue(舌肌)

a.extrinsic muscles(舌外肌)

 i. Genioglossus

(颏舌肌)

origin: mental spine

insertion: tongue & hyoid bone

action: protrudes tongue

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

ii. Hyoglossus

(舌骨舌肌)

origin: hyoid bone

insertion: tongue

action:retracts tongue

iii. Styloglossus

(茎突舌肌)

origin: styloid process

insertion: tongue

action:retracts tongue

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

b.proper (intrinsic) muscles(舌固有肌)

i. superior longitudinal m. (上纵肌)

ii. inferior longitudinal m. (下纵肌)

iii. transverse m. of tongue (舌横肌)

iv. vertical m. of tongue

(舌垂直肌)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

4.The oral glands(口腔腺)

1)Major salivary glands(大唾液腺)

a. parotid gland (腮腺): only serous cells. parotid duct oral vestibule next to the upper M2

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

b. sublingual gland(舌下腺) mostly mucous cells

10 – 12 ducts  sublingual fold

c. submandibular gland(下颌下腺)

duct sublingual caruncle

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The oral cavity proper5

The Oral Cavity Proper (固有口腔)

2)Minor salivary glands

(小唾液腺)

i. palatine gland (腭腺)

ii. buccal gland (颊腺)

iii. labial gland (唇腺)

iv. lingual gland (舌腺)

Saliva(唾液): 1000-1500ml/d

pH 6.75 – 7.00

[mumps 流行性腮腺炎]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Section 2 the pharynx

Section 2 The Pharynx

A.Division (分部)

1.Nasopharynx(鼻咽)

1) pharyngeal opening of auditory tube

(咽鼓管咽口)

2) tubal torus

(咽鼓管圆枕)

3) pharyngeal recess

(咽隐窝)

[nasopharyngeal carcinoma 鼻咽癌]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The pharynx

The Pharynx

2.Oropharynx(口咽)

 1) palatine tonsil

(腭扁桃体)

[tonsillitis 扁桃体炎]

[hypertrophy 扁桃体肥大]

2) tonsillar crypts

(扁桃体窝)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Pharynx

3. Laryngopharynx

(喉咽)

1) piriform recess

(梨状隐窝)

[foreign body 异物]

2) aperture of larynx

(喉口)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Pharynx

B. Muscles of pharynx (咽肌)

1. Constrictors of pharynx (咽缩肌):

a.superior constrictors

b. middle constrictors

c. inferior constrictors

2. Stylopharyngeus (茎突咽肌)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

Section 3The Esophagus

A. Division (分部)

1. Cervical part (颈部)

2. Thoracic part (胸部)

3. Abdominal part (腹部)

B. Location(位置)

mainly in mediastinum

from lower border of C6 to vertebral body of T11

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Esophagus

C.Constrictions (狭窄)

1. Commencement

(开始部)15cm

2. Crossed by left bronchus

(跨左支气管) 25cm

3. Pass through diaphragm

(穿膈处)40cm

[esophageal carcinoma食管癌]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Section 4 the stomach

Section 4 The Stomach

A.Location:

left hypochondraic region (左季肋区) & epigastric region (腹上区)

[gastroptosis 胃下垂]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Stomach

B.External Feature

1.Cardiac opening(贲门)

2.Pyloric opening(幽门)

3.Cardiac part(贲门部)

4.Pyloric part(幽门部)

1) pyloric antrum (幽门窦)

2) pyloric canal (幽门管)

function: gastric emptying(排空)

5.Greater curvature (胃大弯)

6.Lesser curvature (胃小弯)

angular incisure (角切迹)

7.Body of stomach (胃体)

8.Fundus of stomach (胃底)

X-film: magenblase (胃泡)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The stomach

The Stomach

C. Structure of the Gastric Wall

1. Serous membrane (浆膜层)

2. Muscular coats (肌层):

external layer: longitudinal

middlelayer: circular

pyloric sphincter(幽门括约肌)

internallayer: oblique

3. Submucosa (粘膜下层)

4. Mucosa(粘膜):

pyloric valve(幽门瓣)

gastric area(胃区)

gastric pit(胃小凹)

[gastritis 胃炎]

[gastric ulcer 胃溃疡]

[stomach perforation 胃穿孔]

[gastric carcinoma 胃癌]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Stomach

C. Structure of the Gastric Wall

[gastritis 胃炎]

[gastric polyp 胃息肉]

[gastric ulcer 胃溃疡]

[stomach perforation 胃穿孔]

[gastric carcinoma 胃癌]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Section 5 the small intestine

Section 5 The Small Intestine

A.The Duodenum (十二指肠)

1. Superior part (上部):

duodenal bulb (十二指肠球)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Small Intestine

2. Descending part (降部):

1) superior duodenal flexure (上曲)

2) major duodenal papilla

(大乳头)

3) minor duodenal papilla

(小乳头)

4) longitudinal fold of duodenum(纵襞)

[biliary ascariasis 胆道蛔虫病]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Small Intestine

3. Horizontal part (水平部):

inferior duodenal flexure (下曲)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The small intestine

The Small Intestine

4. Ascending part (升部):

1) duodenojejunal flexure

(十二指肠空肠曲)

2) suspensory muscle of duodenum

(十二指肠悬肌) (ligament of Treitz)

[ landmark of gastro-jejunostomy

胃空肠吻合术标志]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The small intestine1

The Small Intestine

B . Jejunum (空肠): anterior 2/5

solitary lymphatic follicles

(孤立淋巴滤泡)

circular folds (环状襞)

10 mm high

intestinal villi (肠绒毛) [enteritis 肠炎]

microvilli (微绒毛)[parasitosis 寄生虫病]

function:

1. Digestion: secrets intestinal juice 1-2L/d, pH 7.6

2. Absorption: glucose, amino acid, glycerin.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Small Intestine

C.Ileum (回肠):posterior 3/5

Aggregated lymphatic follicles

(集合淋巴滤泡)

[typhoid complicated with intestinal perforation

肠伤寒穿孔]

[Meckel diverticulum 美克尔憩室]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Small Intestine

Characteristics Jejunum Ileum

Diameter 2-4 cm 2.5-3 cm

Wall thick, heavy thin, light

Vascularity greater less

Color deeper red paler pink

Arteriae rectae (直动脉) tall short

Arcades large loops, few short loops, many

Fat in mesentery less more

Circular folds well developed rudimentary

Intestinal villi high, concentrated short, scattered

Aggregated lymphatic

follicles none or few many

The distinguishing characteristics of the jejunum and ileum.

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Section 6 the large intestine

Section 6The Large Intestine

1.5 m long and 6.5 cm in diameter

A.Structural Characteristics (结构特征)

1. Colic bands (结肠带)semilunar folds (半月瓣)

2. Haustra of colon (结肠袋)

3. Epiploic appendices (肠脂垂)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Large Intestine

B.The Caecum (cecum) (盲肠)

1. Ileocecal valve (回盲瓣)

[intussusception 肠套迭]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The large intestine

The Large Intestine

C.The Vermiform Appendix (阑尾)

1. anterior ileal position (回肠前位) 28.0%

2. posterior ileal position (回肠后位) 8.3%

3. pelvic position (盆位) 26.1%

4. subcecal position

(盲肠下位) 6.1%

5. retrocecal position

(盲肠后位) 24.0%

[appendicitis 阑尾炎]

[appendectomy 阑尾切除术]

[appendicular perforation 阑尾穿孔]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The large intestine1

The Large Intestine

D.Ascending colon

(升结肠): right (hepatic) colic flexure (结肠右曲)

E.Transverse colon

(横结肠): left (splenic) colic flexure (结肠左曲)

F.Descending colon(降结肠)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Large Intestine

G.Sigmoid colon (乙状结肠)

[volvulus 肠扭转]

Function of colons:

1.absorbing water (吸收水)

2. eliminating as feces (排粪)

3. fermenting cellulose (分解纤维素)

4. synthesizing vitamin (合成维生素)

vitamin B complex, vitamin K

Bacillus coli (结肠杆菌)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The large intestine2

The Large Intestine

H.Rectum (直肠)

1. External feature:

1) ampulla of rectum (直肠壶腹)

2) sacral flexure

(骶曲)

3) perineal flexure

(会阴曲)

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


Part two splanchnology

The Large Intestine

2. Internal structure:

transverse folds (直肠横襞) (Houston valve)

superior (left) 11 cm to anus

middle (right) 9 cm to anus

inferior (left) 7 cm to anus

[rectal carcinoma 直肠癌]

[prolapse 脱垂]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The large intestine3

The Large Intestine

I.Anal canal (肛管)

1. Internal structure

1) anal columns (肛柱)

2) anal valves (肛瓣)

[fissure in ano肛裂]

3) anal sinuses (肛窦)

[anal fistula肛瘘]

4) dentate (anocutaneous) line (齿状线)

5) anal pecten (肛梳)[pile (hemorrhoid)痔]

6) white line (intersphincter sulcus) (白线)

7) anus (肛门)[examination per anus肛门检查]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


The large intestine4

The Large Intestine

2.  Muscles

1) sphincter ani internus

(肛门内括约肌)

2) sphincter ani externus

(肛门外括约肌)

a. subcutaneous part

(皮下部)

b. superficial part (浅部)

c. deep part (深部)

[fecal incontinence 大便失禁]

Dept of Anatomy, Medical College, Qingdao Unicversity


  • Login