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STC Climatology ( 1979–2010). N = 105. ~3 STCs/year. Strong TT Weak TT Trough induced . STC Climatology ( 1979–2010). N = 34. Strong TT Weak TT Trough induced . STC Climatology ( 1979–2010). N = 56. Strong TT Weak TT Trough induced . STC Climatology ( 1979–2010). N = 15.

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STC Climatology ( 1979–2010)

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Stc climatology 1979 2010

STC Climatology (1979–2010)

N = 105

~3 STCs/year

Strong TT

Weak TT

Trough induced


Stc climatology 1979 2010

STC Climatology (1979–2010)

N = 34

Strong TT

Weak TT

Trough induced


Stc climatology 1979 2010

STC Climatology (1979–2010)

N = 56

Strong TT

Weak TT

Trough induced


Stc climatology 1979 2010

STC Climatology (1979–2010)

N = 15

Strong TT

Weak TT

Trough induced


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

  • Identify the most common upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation in 1979–2010 climatology

  • Separate STCs included in 1979–2010 climatology into five clusters representing the most common upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation: 1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

  • Perform a cyclone-relative composite analysis of the upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation within each cluster


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:

350K

isentropicsurface

AWB

  • STC formation is associated with a PV streamer injected into the subtropics by a precursor anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) event

  • PV streamer maintains a clear connection with the midlatitudes


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:

AWB

350K

isentropicsurface

  • STC formation is associated with a region of relatively high upper-tropospheric PV cut off in the subtropics by a precursor AWB event

  • Upper-tropospheric cutoff is entirely removed from midlatitude flow


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:

350K

isentropicsurface

  • STC formation is associated with a broad midlatitude trough moving progressively toward the southeast

  • Broad midlatitude trough is not associated with a precursor AWB event


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:

350K

isentropicsurface

+

H

  • STC formation is associated with a small-scale PV filament propagating around the northern edge of a subtropical anticyclone

  • PV filament is smaller than streamers, cutoffs, and midlatitude troughs


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

1) PV Streamer, 2) Cutoff, 3) Midlatitude Trough, 4) Subtropical Disturbance, and 5) Debris

Clusters:

350K

isentropicsurface

  • STC formation is associated with residual PV debris deposited in the subtropics from a previous AWB event

  • PV debris moves westward on southern edge of a broad subtropical ridge


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

N = 105

Unclassifiable

Streamer

7.62%

11.43%

(8)

(12)

Cutoff

20.95%

(22)

29.52%

Debris

(31)

9.52%

(10)

Midlatitude Trough

20.95%

(22)

Subtropical Disturbance


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-tropospheric Precursors

N = 105

Streamer

Cutoff

Midlatitude Trough

Subtropical DisturbanceDebrisUnclassifiable


Stc climatology 1979 2010

Upper-Tropospheric Precursors

Strong TT

Weak TT

Trough Induced

N = 34

N = 56

N = 15

Streamer = 20.6%

Cutoff = 38.2%

Midlat. Trough = 17.6%Subtrop. Dist.= 5.9%

Debris = 2.9%

Unclassifiable = 14.7%

Streamer = 1.8%

Cutoff = 16.1%

Midlat. Trough = 7.1%Subtrop. Dist. = 30.4%

Debris = 33.9%

Unclassifiable = 10.7%

Streamer = 0.0%

Cutoff = 0.0%

Midlat. Trough = 0.0%Subtrop. Dist.= 20.0%

Debris = 73.3%

Unclassifiable = 6.7%

Upper-level disturbance with strong lower-level thermal gradients

Upper-level disturbancewith moderate lower-level thermal gradients

Upper-level disturbancewithout appreciable lower-level thermal gradients


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