Extended forensic interviews of preschoolers
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Extended Forensic Interviews of preschoolers. ‘ Tone Davik Police Superintendent / Senior Specialist, forensic interviews with children KRIPOS / NCIS, NORWAY. Agenda Åse Langballe, NKVTS. Introduction My background Norway Status forensic interviews Judical system

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Extended forensic interviews of preschoolers

Extended Forensic Interviews of preschoolers

Tone Davik

Police Superintendent / Senior Specialist, forensic interviews with children

KRIPOS / NCIS, NORWAY


Agenda se langballe nkvts

Agenda Åse Langballe, NKVTS

Introduction

My background

Norway

Status forensic interviews

Judical system

Extended forensic interviews

History

The EFI-model in USA

The EFI-model in Norway

Experiences

Plan for the future…

Based on over 150 extended forensic interviews for the last 2 years


Extended forensic interviews of preschoolers

Me…

Police since 1992

Children`s interviewer since 1996

KRIPOS/NCIS since 1998

Specialist training of children`s interviewers at the Police University College for 5 years

Involved in a new specialist training for experienced children`s interviewers – «Forensic interviews of vulnerable» (preschoolers and mentally disabled persons), starts November 2014.

Spesialistprogram at KRIPOS/NCIS – Forensic interviews of preschoolers (2009-2011).


Forensic interviews of children in norway

Forensic interviews of children in Norway

Every child witness under the age of 16 (and mentally disabled)

Rule: Jugde leaded interviews

The jugde is legally in charge, but will always have a specially trained police investigator to conduct the interview

In addition to the jugde, a counsel for the child, usually a defense lawyer for the suspect, a representative from the child protection unit and an adviser from the Children`s house will be following the interview on a monitor

The interview is a part of an investigation, AND to be used in court as the child`s statement

The majority of the interviews are conducted at a Children`s House (there are 10)

A huge increase of forensic interviews with children


Extended forensic interviews of preschoolers

2013


January march 2014

January – March 2014:


Efi kripos ncis

EFI – KRIPOS/NCIS:

2013: 69

January – April 2014: 51


History

History…

Regulations from 1998

Forensic observation introduced as an alternative to forensic interviews with preschoolers

The youngest clearly had special need – to express themself in a way compatible to them in view of age and maturity

Forensic obervation was conducted by child psychiatrists or psychologists with expertise in child psychology and was based on play therapy principles

Evaluated in 2004 – not very well suited to provide evidence for a court – allowed for admission of misinformation

Forensic observation had one strong point: it allowed for repeated, brief interview strategies


History1

History…

Forensic observation hardly used since 2004

«Normal» forensic interviews interviews instead

Experiences:

The framework within our juridical system was not satisfactory

One interview lasting for about one hour was not good enough

Interviewers and whoever handles the information from the youngest children, need professional skills – these skills are today far from being good enough


Extended forensic interviews

Extended forensic interviews

Huntsville, Alabama

Kristin K. Fjell and Henry Molvær – Children`s House in Bergen, and Gro Halland, Hordaland police district (Bergen)

Lots of recognitions from our interviewing model – DCM (Gamst & Langballe)

Phased interview model, but better adapted to the child

The interview devided into several sessions

Since the late 90`s

When they started – 12 sessions, then 8, now 5 is the average


Extended forensic interviews1

Extended forensic interviews

Rapport, narrative practice, develop screen, guidelines and learnaboutthechild

Ditto

Transition and allegationfocustopics

Follow-up and clarifications

Closure

Up to theinterviewer to plan the sessions, normally one-three a week

The EFI alsodiffer from a normal forensicinterviewbecauseof:

Collection ofinformationaboutthechildbeforetheinterview

The toolstheyuse to encourage verbal accounts


Extended forensic interviews2

Extended forensic interviews

Normally an initial investigative interview first

If the interviewer finds a reason for it, the case can be transferred to a MD-team for a review, and then to an EFI

Used in cases where the victim may be particularly vulnerable or «difficult»

Difficult to tell

Mentally disabled or has a developmental disorder

The child is under 6 years old

Traumatized children

Difficulties with language or cognitive abilities

Children from other cultures or with other languages


Research

Research:

Carnes, C.N, Wilson,C., & D. Nelson-Gardell, D. (1999). Extended forensic evaluation when sexual abuse is suspected: A model and preliminary data.Child Maltreatment 4 (3), 242 – 254.

Carnes, C.N., Nelson-Gardell, D., Wilson, C. & U. Orgassa, U.C. (2001). Extended forensic evaluation when sexual abuse is suspected: A multisite field study. Child Maltreatment, 6 (3), 230 – 242.

Patterson, T. & Pipe, M.E. (2009). Exploratory assessments of child abuse: Children`s responses to interviewer`s questions across multiple interview sessions.Child Abuse and Neglect. 33 (8), 490 – 504.

Faller, K.C & Nelson-Gardell, D. (2010). Extended evaluations in cases of child sexual abuse: How many sessions are sufficient? Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.

Difficult to find read out the effect of the EFI in cases with children under 6…


Efi in norway

EFI in Norway?

Possible within our legislation?

Our Public Prosecutor said YES  (16.11.09)

Over one or two days

For preschoolers (3, 4 and 5)

EFI from the very first interview

Project 2010 – 2012

10 EF-interviews

Different kind of challenges of practical art…

It felt so good!  


Efi in norway1

EFI in Norway

Method development (KRIPOS/NCIS responsible)

Training, and establishing an «experience group» of 9 experienced children`s interviewers

Permanent advisers from every Children`s House

Money from the Police Directorate

Seminar focusing on the model, expectations and how to use each others competence and experience

-> preperations for

-> during

-> after

Experience-logs and sharing!


What do we actually do

What do we actually do…?

Ask for TIME and FLEXIBILTY!

Try to increase the skills – on every level

(available)…

Preparations

Information – to the caregiver/person following the child to the interview, and to the child

Where they are going – «To a house for children where children comes to talk every day»

Who to meet there – «Tone, a policewoman who doesn`t wear a uniform, looks «normal» and work with talking to children about how they are and things that may have happened to them»

Why – «Tomorrow Tone will meet you, get to know you and ask you how you are, probably when you are at the nursery, and when you are at home with your mum, dad and siblings»

Collect more information about the child


Preparations preescreening

Preparations / preescreening

Language (amount, articulation, vocabulary)

Concepts (who, what, where)

Attention span

Memory for pastevents

Representational play

Real and imaginarythinking

Remembering or forgettingconcepts

Truth or lieunderstanding

Monitoring of self and others

Use of symbols

Sandra Hewitt, p. 150.


1 session

1. session

Establish a good contact

Make the child feel safe

Do things together to «get started»

Guidelines

Narrative practice

Get a picture of the child`s:

language

developmental level

reactions on different questions and situations

consentration spam

use of symbols…


1 sequense

1. sequense

Normally over after 10 – 30 minutes

The child now knows more about the interviewer, the room and the interview situation


The first break

The first break

Normally for about one hour (+/-)

The interviewer and the adviser/psychologist from the Children`s House start working together:

Goes through the first session in detail

Who did we see and meet here?

What happened, and why?

What seemed to work alright, and what didn`t – and why?

What did I say that made the child look away, leave the chair (or the room) or started walking around?

What was the child`s language like (similar to what we expected or not?)

What did the child to correctly from the book or the puzzle – or incorrectely – and in what way may that influence the child`s ability to continue the interview?


2 session

2. session

Information about why the child is there – adapted to age and the amount and type of information

«You are here today because I would like to hear about you and how you are. We have already got to know eachother a little bit, we`ve talked about what you like to do, your nursery and the celebration of your birthday there last week. Now, I would like to talk about how thinks are in your family…»

Aids to introduce topics in a neutral and clear way

Open, but still focused on topics of interest for the case (cooperation between interviewer and prosecutor – in the preperation phase!)

«Trying to get a preschooler to stay on task for an extended period of time is like nailing jello to the wall!»

Sandra Hewitt


2 session1

2. session…

Transition and allegation focus topics

In one session or more – individual needs

Follow-up and clarification (in 2. session if naturally, but usually in 3. session or later)

Closure – usually in the last session

«How do you think today has been

like?»

«Fine!» («Can I go now…?»)


What have we experienced

What have we experienced?

Disclosure of abuse and violence is a prosess – TIME is essensial

Establish good contact and an atmosphere to tell isn`t always easy, it may take time and creativity


And now what

And now what…?

Continue to increase our skills

Focus on clarification phase – what can we expect to get, how to ask without stopping and/or distroying the child`s statement, how to be even more focused on the most crucial information…

How to increase skills on other levels of our judical system

How to take the responsible of solving it`s own case off the child`s shoulders

The forensic interview with the child is only a bit of a puzzle. The others bits it`s up to the rest of the investigation to find.


And now what1

And now what…?

Extended forensic interviews for other vulnarable groups

EFI in the new training at the Police University College – «Forensic interviews of the most vulnerable» (starts Nov. 14)

So far: Collecting experiences!

A good basis for research!

Our cooporation with Åse Langballe and NKVTS – Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies is a beginning – and hopefully they will get the money and persons they need to start research within a year or so

To be continued…


Litterature and reference list

Litterature and reference list:

Carnes, C.N, Wilson,C., & D. Nelson-Gardell, D. (1999). Extended forensic evaluation when sexual abuse is suspected: A model and preliminary data.Child Maltreatment 4 (3), 242 – 254.

Carnes, C.N., Nelson-Gardell, D., Wilson, C. & U. Orgassa, U.C. (2001). Extended forensic evaluation when sexual abuse is suspected: A multisite field study. Child Maltreatment, 6 (3), 230 – 242.

Davik, T. & Langballe, Å. (2013). “Du får bare gjøre så godt du kan…” Utfordringer og dilemmaer ved avhør av barn i førskolealder. Lov og rett, vol. 52, 1, 3-20.

Hewitt, S.K. (1999). Assessing allegations of sexual abuse in preschool children. Understanding small voices.Sage Publications.

Patterson, T. & Pipe, M.E. (2009). Exploratory assessments of child abuse: Children`s responses to interviewer`s questions across multiple interview sessions.Child Abuse and Neglect. 33 (8), 490 – 504.

Faller, K.C & Nelson-Gardell, D. (2010). Extended evaluations in cases of child sexual abuse: How many sessions are sufficient? Journal of Child Sexual Abuse.


Contact information

Contact information:

Tone Davik

KRIPOS/

National Criminal Investigation Service

[email protected]

Tlf: +47 23208537 / 90939180

Åse Langballe

NKVTS/

Norwegian Centre for Violence and

Traumatic Stress Studies

[email protected]

Tlf: +47 22595500 / 97592190


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