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Pertemuan 7 Bahasa Rakitan: III. Matakuliah: T0324 / Arsitektur dan Organisasi Komputer Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1. Learning Outcomes. Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Mendemonstrasikan penggunaan bahasa rakitan dalam instruksi mesin ( C3 ) ( No TIK : 3 ).

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Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Pertemuan 7Bahasa Rakitan: III

Matakuliah: T0324 / Arsitektur dan Organisasi Komputer

Tahun: 2005

Versi: 1


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa

akan mampu :

  • Mendemonstrasikan penggunaan bahasa rakitan dalam instruksi mesin ( C3 ) ( No TIK : 3 )


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Chapter 2.

Assembly Language: III

(OFC1)


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Mo

v

e

#A

VEC,R1

R1

p

oin

ts

to

v

ector

A.

Mo

v

e

#BVEC,R2

R2

p

oin

ts

to

v

ector

B.

Mo

v

e

N,R3

R3

serv

es

as

a

coun

ter.

Clear

R0

R0

accum

ulates

the

dot

pro

duct.

LOOP

Mo

v

e

(R1)+,R4

Compute

the

pro

duct

of

Multiply

(R2)+,R4

next

comp

onen

ts.

Add

R4,R0

Add

to

previous

sum.

Decremen

t

R3

Decremen

t

the

coun

ter.

Branc

h

LOOP

Loop

again

if

not

done.

>

0

Mo

v

e

R0,DOTPR

OD

Store

dot

pro

duct

in

memory

.

Figure 2.33. A program for computing the dot product of two vectors.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

(j

=

n

1;

j

>

0;

j

=

j

1)

for

{

(

k

=

j

1;

k

>

=

0;

k

=

k

1

)

for

{

(LIST[

k

]

>

LIST[

j

])

if

{

TEMP

=

LIST[

k

];

LIST[

k

]

=

LIST[

];

j

LIST[

j

]

=

TEMP;

}

}

}

(a) C-language program for sorting

Mo

v

e

#LIST,R0

Load

LIST

in

to

base

register

R0.

Mo

v

e

N,R1

Initialize

outer

lo

op

index

Subtract

#1,R1

register

R1

to

j

=

n

1.

OUTER

Mo

v

e

R1,R2

Initialize

inner

lo

op

index

Subtract

#1,R1

register

R2

to

k

=

j

1.

Mo

v

eByte

(R0,R1),R3

Load

LIST(

j

)

in

to

R3,

whic

h

holds

current

maxim

um

in

sublist.

INNER

CompareByte

R3,(R0,R2)

If

LIST(

k

)

[R3],

Branc

h

0

NEXT

do

not

exhange.

Mo

v

eByte

(R0,R2),R4

Otherwise,

exchange

LIST(

k

)

Mo

v

eByte

R3,(R0,R2)

with

LIST(

j

)

and

load

Mo

v

eByte

R4,(R0,R1)

new

maxim

um

in

to

R3.

Mo

v

eByte

R4,R3

Register

R4

serv

es

as

TEMP

.

NEXT

Decremen

t

R2

Decremen

t

index

registers

R2

and

Branc

h

0

INNER

R1,

whic

h

also

serv

e

Decremen

t

R1

as

lo

op

coun

ters,

and

branc

h

Branc

h

>

0

OUTER

bac

k

if

lo

ops

not

finished.

(b) Assembly language program for sorting

Figure 2.34. A byte-sorting program using a straight-selection sort.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Link address

Record 1

Record 2

Record

k

0

Head

T

ail

(a) Linking structure

Record 2

Record 1

Ne

w record

(b) Inserting a new record between Record 1 and Record 2

Figure 2.35. Linked-list data structure.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Link address

Record 1

Record 2

Record

k

0

Head

T

ail

(a) Linking structure

Record 2

Record 1

Ne

w record

(b) Inserting a new record between Record 1 and Record 2

Figure 2.35. Linked-list data structure.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Memory

Key

Link

Data

field

address

field

field

(ID)

(Test scores)

1 word

1 word

3 words

First

2320

27243

1040

Head

record

Second

1040

28106

1200

record

Third

1200

28370

2880

record

Second last

2720

40632

1280

record

Last

1280

47871

0

Tail

record

Figure 2.36. A list of student test scores organized as a linked list in memory.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

INSER

TION

Compare

#0, RHEAD

Branch>0

HEAD

ne

w record

Mo

v

e

RNEWREC, RHEAD

becomes a

not empty

one-entry list

Return

Compare

(RHEAD), (RNEWREC)

HEAD

Branch>0

SEARCH

ne

w record

Mo

v

e

RHEAD, 4(RNEWREC)

insert ne

w record

becomes

some

where after

Mo

v

e

RNEWREC, RHEAD

ne

w head

current head

Return

Mo

v

e

RHEAD, RCURRENT

SEARCH

Mo

v

e

4(RCURRENT), RNEXT

LOOP

Compare

#0, RNEXT

Branch=0

T

AIL

ne

w record becomes ne

w tail

Compare

(RNEXT), (RNEWREC)

Branch<0

INSER

T

insert ne

w record in

Mo

v

e

RNEXT

, RCURRENT

an interior position

Branch

LOOP

INSER

T

Mo

v

e

RNEXT

, 4(RNEWREC)

Mo

v

e

RNEWREC, 4(RCURRENT)

T

AIL

Return

Figure 2.37. A subroutine for inserting a new record into a linked list.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

DELETION

Compare

(RHEAD), RIDNUM

Branch>0

SEARCH

Mo

v

e

4(RHEAD), RHEAD

not the head record

Return

Mo

v

e

RHEAD, RCURRENT

SEARCH

LOOP

Mo

v

e

4(RCURRENT), RNEXT

Compare

(RNEXT), RIDNUM

Branch=0

DELETE

Mo

v

e

RNEXT

, RCURRENT

Branch

LOOP

DELETE

Mo

v

e

4(RNEXT), R

TEMP

Mo

v

e

R

TEMP

, 4(RCURRENT)

Return

Figure 2.38. A subroutine for deleting a record from a linked list.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

8

7

7

10

OP code

Source

Dest

Other info

(a) One-word instruction

OP code

Source

Dest

Other info

Memory address/Immediate operand

(b) Two-word instruction

OP code

R

i

R

j

R

k

Other info

(c) Three-operand instruction

Figure 2.39. Encoding instructions into 32-bit words.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

able

2.1

Generic addressing modes

Name

Assem

bler

syn

tax

Addressing

function

Immediate

#V

alue

Op

erand

=

V

alue

Register

R

i

EA

=

R

i

Absolute

(Direct)

LOC

EA

=

LOC

Indirect

(R

i

)

EA

=

[R

i

]

(LOC)

EA

=

[LOC]

Index

X(R

i

)

EA

=

[R

i

]

+

X

Base

with

index

(R

i

,R

j

)

EA

=

[R

i

]

+

[R

j

]

Base

with

index

X(R

i

,R

j

)

EA

=

[R

i

]

+

[R

j

]

+

X

and

offset

Relative

X(PC)

EA

=

[PC]

+

X

Autoincremen

t

(R

i

)+

EA

=

[R

i

]

;

Incremen

t

R

i

Autodecrement

(R

i

)

Decremen

t

R

i

;

EA

=

[R

i

]

EA

=

effectiv

e

address

V

alue

=

a

signed

n

um

b

er


Pertemuan 8 bahasa rakitan iv

Pertemuan 8Bahasa Rakitan: IV

Matakuliah: T0324 / Arsitektur dan Organisasi Komputer

Tahun: 2005

Versi: 1


Learning outcomes1

Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa

akan mampu :

  • Mendemonstrasikan penggunaan bahasa rakitan dalam instruksi mesin ( C3 ) ( No TIK : 3 )


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Chapter 2.

Assembly Language: IV

(OFC2)


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

#

include

stdio.h

<

>

v

oid

main(void)

{

long

NUM1[5];

long

SUM;

long

N;

NUM1[0]

=

17;

NUM1[1]

=

3;

NUM1[2]

=

51;

NUM1[3]

=

242;

NUM1[4]

=

113;

SUM

=

0;

N

=

5;

asm

{

LEA

EBX,NUM1

MO

V

ECX,N

MO

V

EAX,0

MO

V

EDI,0

ST

AR

T

ADD:

ADD

EAX,[EBX

+

EDI*4]

INC

EDI

DEC

ECX

JG

ST

AR

T

ADD

MO

V

SUM,EAX

}

printf

("The

sum

of

the

list

v

alues

is

%ld

\

n",

SUM

);

}

Figure D.2. IA-32 Program in Figure 3.40a encapsulated in a C/C++ program.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

Machine

instructions

Assembly

language

instructions

(hexadecimal)

03

04

BB

STARTADD:

ADD

EAX,[EBX

+

EDI*4]

47

INC

EDI

49

DEC

ECX

7F

F9

JG

ST

AR

T

ADD

(a) Loop body encoding

OP

code

ModR/M

byte

SIB

byte

03

04

BB

00000011

00

000

100

10

111

011

ADD

(see

T

able

D.2)

(see

Figure

D.1

c

)

(doubleword

(b) ADD instruction

OP

code

Offset

7F

F9

01111111

111111001

JG

7

(short

offset)

(c) JG instruction

Figure D.3. Encoding of the loop body in Figure D.2.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.1

Register

field

enco

ding

in

IA-32

instructions

Reg/Base/Index*

Register

field

0

0

0

EAX

0

0

1

ECX

0

1

0

EDX

0

1

1

EBX

1

0

0

ESP

1

0

1

EBP

1

1

0

ESI

1

1

1

EDI

*ESP (100) cannot be used as an

index register.


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.2

IA-32 addressing modes selected by the ModR/M and SIB bytes

ModR/M

b

yte

Addressing

mode

Mod

R/M

field

field

b

b

b

b

b

7

6

2

1

0

0

0

Reg

Register

indirect

EA

=

[Reg]

0

1

Reg

Base

with

8-bit

displacement

EA

=

[Reg]

+

Disp8

1

0

Reg

Base

with

32-bit

displacement

EA

=

[Reg]

+

Disp32

1

1

Reg

Register

EA

=

Reg

Exceptions

0

0

1

0

1

Direct

EA

=

Disp32

0

0

1

0

0

Base

with

index

(uses

SIB

b

yte)

EA

=

[Base]

+

[Index]

Scale

When

Base

=

EBP

the

addressing

mo

de

is:

Index

with

32-bit

displacement

EA

=

[Index]

Scale

+

Disp32

0

1

1

0

0

Base

with

index

and

8-bit

displacement

(uses

SIB

b

yte)

EA

=

[Base]

+

[Index]

Scale

+

Disp8

32-bit

1

0

1

0

0

Base

with

index

and

displacemet

(uses

SIB

b

yte)

EA

=

[Base]

+

[Index]

Scale

+

Disp32


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.3

Scale

field

encoding

in

IA-32

SIB

b

yte

Scale

field

Scale

0

0

1

0

1

2

1

0

4

1

1

8


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

IA-32

instructions

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

ADC

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

+

[src]

+

[CF]

x

x

x

x

(Add

with

reg

mem

carry)

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

ADD

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

+

[src]

x

x

x

x

(Add)

reg

mem

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

AND

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

^

[src]

x

x

0

0

(Logical

reg

mem

AND)

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

BT

D

reg

reg

bit#

=

[src];

x

(Bit

test)

reg

imm8

CF

bit#

of

[dst]

mem

reg

mem

imm8

BTC

D

reg

reg

bit#

=

[src];

x

(Bit

test

and

reg

imm8

CF

bit#

of

[dst];

complement

mem

reg

complement

bit#

mem

imm8

of

[dst]

BTR

D

reg

reg

bit#

=

[src];

x

(Bit

test

reg

imm8

CF

bit#

of

[dst];

and

reset)

mem

reg

clear

bit#

of

[dst]

to

0

mem

imm8

Table D.4 – page 1


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(

Continued

)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

BTS

D

reg

reg

bit#

=

[src];

x

(Bit

test

reg

imm8

CF

bit#

of

[dst];

and

set)

mem

reg

set

bit#

of

[dst]

to

1

mem

imm8

CALL

D

reg

ESP

[ESP]

4;

(Subroutine

mem

[ESP]

[EIP];

call)

EIP

EA

of

dst

CLC

CF

0

0

(Clear

carry)

CLI

IF

0

(Clear

int.

flag)

CMC

CF

[CF]

x

(Compl.

carry)

CMP

B,D

reg

reg

[dst]

[src]

x

x

x

x

(Compare)

reg

mem

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

DEC

B,D

reg

dst

[dst]

1

x

x

x

(Decrement)

mem

DIV

B,D

reg

for

B:

?

?

?

?

(Unsigned

mem

[AL]/[src];

divide)

AL

quotient;

AH

remainder

for

D:

[EAX]/[src];

EAX

quotient;

ED

X

remainder

Table D.4 – page 2


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(

Continued

)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

HL

T

Halts

execution

un

til

(Halt)

reset

or

external

in

terrupt

o

ccurs

IDIV

B,D

reg

for

B:

?

?

?

?

(Signed

mem

[AL]/[src];

divide)

AL

quotient;

AH

remainder

for

D:

[EAX]/[src];

EAX

quotient;

ED

X

remainder

IMUL

B,D

reg

(double-length

product)

?

?

x

x

(Signed

mem

for

B:

m

ultiplication)

AX

[AL]

[src]

for

D:

ED

X,EAX

[EAX]

[src]

D

reg

reg

(single-length

pro

duct)

?

?

x

x

reg

mem

reg

[reg]

[src]

IN

B,D

dst

=

AL

AL

or

EAX

[src]

(Isolated

or

EAX

input)

src

=

imm8

or

[D

X]

INC

B,D

reg

dst

[dst]

+

1

x

x

x

(Increment

)

mem

INT

D

imm8

Push

EFLA

GS;

(Software

Push

EIP;

in

terrupt)

EIP

address

(determined

b

y

imm8)

Table D.4 – page 3


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(

Continued)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

IRET

D

P

op

EIP;

x

x

x

x

(Return

from

P

op

EFLA

GS

in

terrupt)

LEA

D

reg

mem

reg

EA

of

src

(Load

effectiv

e

address)

LOOP

D

target

ECX

[ECX]

1;

(Lo

op)

If

(

[ECX]

0

)

EIP

target

LOOPE

D

target

ECX

[ECX]

1;

(Lo

op

on

If

(

[ECX]

0

^

equal/zero)

[Z]

=

1

)

EIP

target

LOOPNE

D

target

ECX

[ECX]

1;

(Lo

op

on

If

(

[ECX]

0

^

not

equal/

[Z]

1

)

not

zero)

EIP

target

MO

V

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[src]

(Mo

v

e)

reg

mem

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

MO

VSX

B

reg

reg

reg

sign

extend

[src]

(Sign

extend

reg

mem

b

yte

in

to

register)

Table D.4 – page 4


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(

Continued)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

MO

VZX

B

reg

reg

reg

zero

extend

[src]

(Zero

extend

reg

mem

b

yte

in

to

register)

MUL

B,D

reg

(double-length

pro

duct)

?

?

x

x

(Unsigned

mem

for

B:

m

ultiplication)

AX

[AL]

[src]

for

D:

ED

X,EAX

[EAX]

[src]

NEG

B,D

reg

dst

2's-complement

x

x

x

x

(Negate)

mem

[dst]

NOP

alias

for:

(No

op

eration)

X

CHG

EAX,EAX

NOT

B,D

reg

dst

[dst

]

(Logical

mem

complement)

OR

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

[src]

x

x

0

0

(Logical

OR)

reg

mem

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

OUT

B,D

dst

=

imm8

dst

[AL]

or

[EAX]

(Isolated

or

[D

X]

output)

src

=

AL

or

EAX

Table D.4 – page 5


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(

Continued)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

POP

D

reg

dst

[[ESP]];

(Pop

off

mem

ESP

[ESP]

+

4

stack)

POPAD

D

Pop

eight

doublewords

(Pop

off

off

stack

in

to

stack

in

to

EDI,

ESI,

EBP

,

discard,

all

registers

EBX,

EDX,

ECX,

EAX;

except

ESP)

ESP

[ESP]

+

32

PUSH

D

reg

ESP

[ESP]

4;

(Push

on

to

mem

[ESP]

[src]

stac

k)

imm

PUSHAD

D

Push

contents

of

(Push

all

EAX,

ECX,

EDX,

EBX,

registers

ESP

,

EBP

,

ESI,

EDI

on

to

stack)

on

to

stack;

ESP

[ESP]

32

R

CL

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.32

b

;

?

x

(Rotate

left

reg

CL

src

operand

is

with

C

flag)

mem

imm8

rotation

count

mem

CL

R

CR

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.32

d

;

?

x

(Rotate

righ

t

reg

CL

src

operand

is

with

C

flag)

mem

imm8

rotation

count

mem

CL

RET

EIP

[[ESP]];

(Return

from

ESP

[ESP]

+

4

subroutine)

Table D.4 – page 6


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(Continued)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

R

OL

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.32

a

;

?

x

(Rotate

left)

reg

CL

src

operand

is

mem

imm8

rotation

count

mem

CL

R

OR

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.32

c

;

?

x

(Rotate

righ

t)

reg

CL

src

operand

is

mem

imm8

rotation

count

mem

CL

SAL

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.30

a

;

x

x

?

x

(Shift

reg

CL

src

operand

is

arithmetic

mem

imm8

shift

count

left)

mem

CL

same

as

SHL

SAR

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.30

c

;

x

x

?

x

(Shift

reg

CL

src

operand

is

arithmetic

mem

imm8

shift

count

right)

mem

CL

SBB

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

[src]

x

x

x

x

(Subtract

reg

mem

[CF]

with

b

orrow)

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

SHL

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.30

a

;

x

x

?

x

(Shift

reg

CL

src

operand

is

left)

mem

imm8

shift

count

same

as

SAL

mem

CL

Table D.4 – page 7


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.4

(Continued)

Mnemonic

Size

Operands

Operation

CC

flags

(Name)

performed

affected

dst

src

S

Z

O

C

SHR

B,D

reg

imm8

See

Figure

2.30

b

;

x

x

?

x

(Shift

reg

CL

src

operand

is

righ

t)

mem

imm8

shift

coun

t

mem

CL

STC

CF

1

1

(Set

carry

flag)

STI

IF

1

(Set

in

terrupt

flag)

SUB

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

[src]

x

x

x

x

(Subtract)

reg

mem

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

TEST

B,D

reg

reg

[dst]

^

[src];

x

x

0

0

(T

est)

mem

reg

set

flags

based

reg

imm

on

result

mem

imm

X

CHG

B,D

reg

reg

[reg]

[src]

(Exchange)

reg

mem

X

OR

B,D

reg

reg

dst

[dst]

[src]

x

x

0

0

(Exclusive

reg

mem

OR)

mem

reg

reg

imm

mem

imm

Table D.4 – page 8


Pertemuan 7 bahasa rakitan iii

T

ABLE

D.5

IA-32

conditional

jump

instructions

Mnemonic

Condition

Condition

code

name

test

JS

Sign

(negative)

SF

=

1

JNS

No

sign

(positive

or

zero)

SF

=

0

JE/JZ

Equal/Zero

ZF

=

1

JNE/JNZ

Not

equal/Not

zero

ZF

=

0

JO

Overflow

OF

=

1

JNO

No

overflow

OF

=

0

JC/JB

Carry/Unsigned

below

CF

=

1

JNC/JAE

No

carry/Unsigned

above

or

equal

CF

=

0

JA

Unsigned

above

CF

ZF

=

0

JBE

Unsigned

below

or

equal

CF

ZF

=

1

JGE

Signed

greater

than

or

equal

SF

OF

=

0

JL

Signed

less

than

SF

OF

=

1

JG

Signed

greater

than

ZF

(SF

OF)

=

0

JLE

Signed

less

than

or

equal

ZF

(SF

OF)

=

1


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