Muscle injuries risk factors preventative measures
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Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures. SHMD 249 2/05/2013. Sports Injuries. Risk Factors. Extrinsic Risk Factors. Something external to the body that can cause injury. Intrinsic Risk Factors. A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury. Pg 260-262.

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Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures

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Muscle Injuries*Risk Factors*Preventative Measures

SHMD 249


Sports Injuries

Risk Factors

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Something external to the body that can cause injury


Risk Factors

A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Inappropriate coaching or instruction

  • Coaches:

    • Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury.

    • Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to maintain highest & safest standards.

    • Must be able to communicate effectively.

  • Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly & appropriately enforced.

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Incorrect Advice on Technique

  • PE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport skills techniques.

  • If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) = injury.

  • Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Environmental conditions

  • Environment: the area in which the sport is performed.

  • Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature.

  • Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining injuries.

  • Example:

  • Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring themselves or another player.

  • Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Other sports players

  • Some sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc.

  • contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled.

  • Non-contactsports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or accidental collisions.

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • Always use equipment needed to play sport correctly.

  • Example: if javelin/shot-put/discus not held/thrown correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people.

  • Some sports require protective clothing.

  • Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket etc.

  • Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full range of movement.

  • Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which limits movement, could cause injury.

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • Essential to use correct footwear for correct surface.

  • Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to player & totally suitable for surface required for sport

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • However, footwear may still be the cause of injury.

  • Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the person is turning on a planted foot they can twist their knee.

  • Incorrect footwear = injury.

  • Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned shoe to absorb impact of constant running.

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Inadequate warm-up

  • Very common cause of sports injury.

  • Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise.

  • Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up).

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Inadequate warm-up

  • 3 components of Warm-up:

    • Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help warm-up muscles to make them more flexible.

    • Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion.

    • Main muscles to be used should be stretched.

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Muscle Imbalance

  • One muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other.

  • Example:footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury).

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Poor Preparation

  • Players’ fitness levels specific to sport.

  • Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired develop poor sport techniques.

  • Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which competition will take place (hot/cold).

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Postural Defects

  • Some people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer than the other, or their spine having the wrong curvature.

  • = more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to injuries after long periods of exercise.

  • Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training techniques over a long period of time.

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Poor Technique

  • Related to an individual’s performance without the use of equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse of equipment).

  • Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to injuries.

  • Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries.

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors


  • Every time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus the body needs time to repair itself afterwards.

  • Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough recovery time.

  • When you don’t rest & allow the

    body to repair itself, it gets weaker

    & eventually gets injured.

Pg 260-262

Intrinsic Risk Factors


  • Young children most common injuries occur due to falling.

  • Older children the most common injuries result from collisions and violence.

  • Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due to intrinsic factors.

Pg 260-262

! ! ! PREVENTION ! ! !

Preventative Measures

  • Improving & maintaining fitness.

  • Adequate & appropriate warm-up.

  • Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by governing bodies).

  • Always remove jewelry.

  • Supervision by suitable qualified coach:

    • Correct techniques.

    • Design appropriate training programs for performers needs.

    • Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training.

Pg 260-262

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