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Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures. SHMD 249 2/05/2013. Sports Injuries. Risk Factors. Extrinsic Risk Factors. Something external to the body that can cause injury. Intrinsic Risk Factors. A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury. Pg 260-262.

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Presentation Transcript
risk factors
Risk Factors

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Something external to the body that can cause injury

Intrinsic

Risk Factors

A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury

slide4

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Inappropriate coaching or instruction

  • Coaches:
    • Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury.
    • Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to maintain highest & safest standards.
    • Must be able to communicate effectively.
  • Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly & appropriately enforced.
slide5

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Incorrect Advice on Technique

  • PE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport skills techniques.
  • If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) = injury.
  • Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.
slide6

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Environmental conditions

  • Environment: the area in which the sport is performed.
  • Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature.
  • Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining injuries.
  • Example:
  • Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring themselves or another player.
  • Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.
slide7

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Other sports players

  • Some sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc.
  • contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled.
  • Non-contactsports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or accidental collisions.
slide8

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • Always use equipment needed to play sport correctly.
  • Example: if javelin/shot-put/discus not held/thrown correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people.
  • Some sports require protective clothing.
  • Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket etc.
  • Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full range of movement.
  • Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which limits movement, could cause injury.
slide9

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • Essential to use correct footwear for correct surface.
  • Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to player & totally suitable for surface required for sport
slide10

Pg 260-262

Extrinsic Risk Factors

Equipment, clothing and footwear issues

  • However, footwear may still be the cause of injury.
  • Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the person is turning on a planted foot they can twist their knee.
  • Incorrect footwear = injury.
  • Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned shoe to absorb impact of constant running.
slide11

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Inadequate warm-up

  • Very common cause of sports injury.
  • Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise.
  • Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up).

Pg 260-262

slide12

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Inadequate warm-up

  • 3 components of Warm-up:
    • Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help warm-up muscles to make them more flexible.
    • Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion.
    • Main muscles to be used should be stretched.

Pg 260-262

slide13

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Muscle Imbalance

  • One muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other.
  • Example:footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury).

Pg 260-262

slide14

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Poor Preparation

  • Players’ fitness levels specific to sport.
  • Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired develop poor sport techniques.
  • Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which competition will take place (hot/cold).

Pg 260-262

slide15

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Postural Defects

  • Some people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer than the other, or their spine having the wrong curvature.
  • = more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to injuries after long periods of exercise.
  • Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training techniques over a long period of time.

Pg 260-262

slide16

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Poor Technique

  • Related to an individual’s performance without the use of equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse of equipment).
  • Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to injuries.
  • Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries.

Pg 260-262

slide17

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Overuse

  • Every time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus the body needs time to repair itself afterwards.
  • Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough recovery time.
  • When you don’t rest & allow the

body to repair itself, it gets weaker

& eventually gets injured.

Pg 260-262

slide18

Intrinsic Risk Factors

Age

  • Young children most common injuries occur due to falling.
  • Older children the most common injuries result from collisions and violence.
  • Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due to intrinsic factors.

Pg 260-262

preventative measures
Preventative Measures
  • Improving & maintaining fitness.
  • Adequate & appropriate warm-up.
  • Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by governing bodies).
  • Always remove jewelry.
  • Supervision by suitable qualified coach:
    • Correct techniques.
    • Design appropriate training programs for performers needs.
    • Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training.

Pg 260-262

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