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Oceanic Energy. Professor S.R. Lawrence Leeds School of Business University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80305. Renewable Hydro Power Wind Energy Oceanic Energy Solar Power Geothermal Biomass. Sustainable Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Nuclear Fossil Fuel Innovation Exotic Technologies

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Oceanic energy

Oceanic Energy

Professor S.R. Lawrence

Leeds School of Business

University of Colorado

Boulder, CO 80305


Course outline

Renewable

Hydro Power

Wind Energy

Oceanic Energy

Solar Power

Geothermal

Biomass

Sustainable

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells

Nuclear

Fossil Fuel Innovation

Exotic Technologies

Integration

Distributed Generation

Course Outline


Oceanic energy outline

Overview

Tidal Power

Technologies

Environmental Impacts

Economics

Future Promise

Wave Energy

Technologies

Environmental Impacts

Economics

Future Promise

Assessment

Oceanic Energy Outline



Sources of new energy
Sources of New Energy

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Global primary energy sources 2002
Global Primary Energy Sources 2002

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Renewable energy use 2001
Renewable Energy Use – 2001

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)



Tidal motions
Tidal Motions

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tidal forces
Tidal Forces

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Natural tidal bottlenecks
Natural Tidal Bottlenecks

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tidal energy technologies

Tidal Energy Technologies

1. Tidal Turbine Farms

2. Tidal Barrages (dams)



Tidal turbines mct seagen
Tidal Turbines (MCT Seagen)

  • 750 kW – 1.5 MW

  • 15 – 20 m rotors

  • 3 m monopile

  • 10 – 20 RPM

  • Deployed in multi-unit farms or arrays

  • Like a wind farm, but

    • Water 800x denser than air

    • Smaller rotors

    • More closely spaced

MCT Seagen Pile

http://www.marineturbines.com/technical.htm


Tidal turbines swanturbines

Direct drive to generator

No gearboxes

Gravity base

Versus a bored foundation

Fixed pitch turbine blades

Improved reliability

But trades off efficiency

Tidal Turbines (Swanturbines)

http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/tidal.htm


Deeper water current turbine
Deeper Water Current Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Oscillating tidal turbine

Oscillates up and down

150 kW prototype operational (2003)

Plans for 3 – 5 MW prototypes

Oscillating Tidal Turbine

http://www.engb.com

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Polo tidal turbine

Vertical turbine blades

Rotates under a tethered ring

50 m in diameter

20 m deep

600 tonnes

Max power 12 MW

Polo Tidal Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Power from land tides
Power from Land Tides (!)

http://www.geocities.com/newideasfromtelewise/tidalpowerplant.htm


Advantages of tidal turbines
Advantages of Tidal Turbines

  • Low Visual Impact

    • Mainly, if not totally submerged.

  • Low Noise Pollution

    • Sound levels transmitted are very low

  • High Predictability

    • Tides predicted years in advance, unlike wind

  • High Power Density

    • Much smaller turbines than wind turbines for the same power

http://ee4.swan.ac.uk/egormeja/index.htm


Disadvantages of tidal turbines
Disadvantages of Tidal Turbines

  • High maintenance costs

  • High power distribution costs

  • Somewhat limited upside capacity

  • Intermittent power generation



Definitions
Definitions

  • Barrage

    • An artificial dam to increase the depth of water for use in irrigation or navigation, or in this case, generating electricity.

  • Flood

    • The rise of the tide toward land (rising tide)

  • Ebb

    • The return of the tide to the sea (falling tide)


Potential tidal barrage sites
Potential Tidal Barrage Sites

Only about 20 sites in the world have been identified as possible tidal barrage stations

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Schematic of tidal barrage
Schematic of Tidal Barrage

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Cross section of a tidal barrage
Cross Section of a Tidal Barrage

http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/tidal.html


Tidal barrage bulb turbine
Tidal Barrage Bulb Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tidal barrage rim generator
Tidal Barrage Rim Generator

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tidal barrage tubular turbine
Tidal Barrage Tubular Turbine

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


La rance tidal power barrage
La Rance Tidal Power Barrage

  • Rance River estuary, Brittany (France)

  • Largest in world

  • Completed in 1966

  • 24×10 MW bulb turbines (240 MW)

    • 5.4 meter diameter

  • Capacity factor of ~40%

  • Maximum annual energy: 2.1 TWh

  • Realized annual energy: 840 GWh

  • Electric cost: 3.7¢/kWh

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005


La rance tidal power barrage1
La Rance Tidal Power Barrage

http://www.stacey.peak-media.co.uk/Brittany2003/Rance/Rance.htm



La rance barrage schematic
La Rance Barrage Schematic

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Cross section of la rance barrage
Cross Section of La Rance Barrage

http://www.calpoly.edu/~cm/studpage/nsmallco/clapper.htm



Tidal barrage energy calculations
Tidal Barrage Energy Calculations

  • R = range (height) of tide (in m)

  • A = area of tidal pool (in km2)

  • m = mass of water

  • g = 9.81 m/s2= gravitational constant

  • = 1025 kg/m3= density of seawater

  • 0.33 = capacity factor (20-35%)

kWh per tidal cycle

Assuming 706 tidal cycles per year (12 hrs 24 min per cycle)

Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005


La rance barrage example
La Rance Barrage Example

  • =33%

  • R = 8.5 m

  • A = 22 km2

GWh/yr

Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005


Proposed severn barrage 1989
Proposed Severn Barrage (1989)

Never constructed, but instructive

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Proposed severn barrage 19891
Proposed Severn Barrage (1989)

  • Severn River estuary

    • Border between Wales and England

  • 216 × 40 MW turbine generators (9.0m dia)

  • 8,640 MW total capacity

  • 17 TWh average energy output

  • Ebb generation with flow pumping

  • 16 km (9.6 mi) total barrage length

  • £8.2 ($15) billion estimated cost (1988)


Severn barrage layout
Severn BarrageLayout

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Severn barrage proposal effect on tide levels
Severn Barrage ProposalEffect on Tide Levels

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Severn barrage proposal power generation over time
Severn Barrage ProposalPower Generation over Time

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Severn barrage proposal capital costs

~$15 billion

(1988 costs)

Severn Barrage ProposalCapital Costs

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005


Severn barrage proposal energy costs

~10¢/kWh

(1989 costs)

Severn Barrage ProposalEnergy Costs

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Severn barrage proposal capital costs versus energy costs
Severn Barrage ProposalCapital Costs versus Energy Costs

1p  2¢

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Offshore tidal lagoon
Offshore Tidal Lagoon

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tidal fence

Array of vertical axis tidal turbines

No effect on tide levels

Less environmental impact than a barrage

1000 MW peak (600 MW average) fences soon

Tidal Fence

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Promising tidal energy sites
Promising Tidal Energy Sites

http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/tidalsites.html


Tidal barrage environmental factors
Tidal Barrage Environmental Factors

  • Changes in estuary ecosystems

    • Less variation in tidal range

    • Fewer mud flats

  • Less turbidity – clearer water

    • More light, more life

  • Accumulation of silt

    • Concentration of pollution in silt

  • Visual clutter


Advantages of tidal barrages
Advantages of Tidal Barrages

  • High predictability

    • Tides predicted years in advance, unlike wind

  • Similar to low-head dams

    • Known technology

  • Protection against floods

  • Benefits for transportation (bridge)

  • Some environmental benefits

http://ee4.swan.ac.uk/egormeja/index.htm


Disadvantages of tidal turbines1
Disadvantages of Tidal Turbines

  • High capital costs

  • Few attractive tidal power sites worldwide

  • Intermittent power generation

  • Silt accumulation behind barrage

    • Accumulation of pollutants in mud

  • Changes to estuary ecosystem



Wave structure
Wave Structure

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave frequency and amplitude
Wave Frequency and Amplitude

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave patterns over time
Wave Patterns over Time

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave power calculations
Wave Power Calculations

Hs2 = Significant wave height – 4x rms water elevation (m)

Te = avg time between upward movements across mean (s)

P = Power in kW per meter of wave crest length

Example: Hs2 = 3m and Te = 10s


Global wave energy averages
Global Wave Energy Averages

Average wave energy (est.) in kW/m (kW per meter of wave length)

http://www.wavedragon.net/technology/wave-energy.htm


Wave energy potential
Wave Energy Potential

  • Potential of 1,500 – 7,500 TWh/year

    • 10 and 50% of the world’s yearly electricity demand

    • IEA (International Energy Agency)

  • 200,000 MW installed wave and tidal energy power forecast by 2050

    • Power production of 6 TWh/y

    • Load factor of 0.35

    • DTI and Carbon Trust (UK)

  • “Independent of the different estimates the potential for a pollution free energy generation is enormous.”

http://www.wavedragon.net/technology/wave-energy.htm



Wave concentration effects
Wave Concentration Effects

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Tapered channel tapchan
Tapered Channel (Tapchan)

http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/ocean.html


Oscillating water column
Oscillating Water Column

http://www.oceansatlas.com/unatlas/uses/EnergyResources/Background/Wave/W2.html


Oscillating column cross section
Oscillating Column Cross-Section

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Limpet oscillating water column

Completed 2000

Scottish Isles

Two counter-rotating Wells turbines

Two generators

500 kW max power

LIMPET Oscillating Water Column

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Mighty whale design japan
“Mighty Whale” Design – Japan

http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec/MTD/Whale/


Might whale design
Might Whale Design

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Turbines for wave energy
Turbines for Wave Energy

Turbine used in Mighty Whale

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

http://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec/MTD/Whale/


Ocean wave conversion system
Ocean Wave Conversion System

http://www.sara.com/energy/WEC.html



Wave dragon
Wave Dragon

Wave Dragon

Copenhagen, Denmark

http://www.WaveDragon.net

Click Picture for Video

http://www.wavedragon.net/technology/wave-energy.htm


Wave dragon energy output
Wave Dragon Energy Output

  • in a 24kW/m wave climate = 12 GWh/year

  • in a 36kW/m wave climate = 20 GWh/year

  • in a 48kW/m wave climate = 35 GWh/year

  • in a 60kW/m wave climate = 43 GWh/year

  • in a 72kW/m wave climate = 52 GWh/year.

http://www.wavedragon.net/technology/wave-energy.htm


Declining wave energy costs
Declining Wave Energy Costs

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave energy power distribution
Wave Energy Power Distribution

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave energy supply vs electric demand
Wave Energy Supply vs. Electric Demand

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave energy environmental impacts

Wave Energy Environmental Impacts


Wave energy environmental impact
Wave Energy Environmental Impact

  • Little chemical pollution

  • Little visual impact

  • Some hazard to shipping

  • No problem for migrating fish, marine life

  • Extract small fraction of overall wave energy

    • Little impact on coastlines

  • Release little CO2, SO2, and NOx

    • 11g, 0.03g, and 0.05g / kWh respectively

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)


Wave energy summary

Wave Energy Summary


Wave power advantages
Wave Power Advantages

  • Onshore wave energy systems can be incorporated into harbor walls and coastal protection

    • Reduce/share system costs

    • Providing dual use

  • Create calm sea space behind wave energy systems

    • Development of mariculture

    • Other commercial and recreational uses;

  • Long-term operational life time of plant

  • Non-polluting and inexhaustible supply of energy

http://www.oceansatlas.com/unatlas/uses/EnergyResources/Background/Wave/W2.html


Wave power disadvantages
Wave Power Disadvantages

  • High capital costs for initial construction

  • High maintenance costs

  • Wave energy is an intermittent resource

  • Requires favorable wave climate. 

  • Investment of power transmission cables to shore

  • Degradation of scenic ocean front views

  • Interference with other uses of coastal and offshore areas

    • navigation, fishing, and recreation if not properly sited

  • Reduced wave heights may affect beach processes in the littoral zone

http://www.oceansatlas.com/unatlas/uses/EnergyResources/Background/Wave/W2.html


Wave energy summary1
Wave Energy Summary

  • Potential as significant power supply (1 TW)

  • Intermittence problems mitigated by integration with general energy supply system

  • Many different alternative designs

  • Complimentary to other renewable and conventional energy technologies

http://www.oceansatlas.com/unatlas/uses/EnergyResources/Background/Wave/W2.html



World oceanic energy potentials gw

Source

Tides

Waves

Currents

OTEC1

Salinity

World electric2

World hydro

Potential (est)

2,500 GW

2,7003

5,000

200,000

1,000,000

4,000

World Oceanic Energy Potentials (GW)

Practical (est)

  • 20 GW

  • 500

  • 50

  • 40

  • NPA4

  • 2,800

  • 550

1 Temperature gradients

2 As of 1998

3 Along coastlines

4 Not presently available

Tester et al., Sustainable Energy, MIT Press, 2005


Solar power next week

Solar Power– Next Week

http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.jpg


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