Social exchange relationships
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SOCIAL EXCHANGE & RELATIONSHIPS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SOCIAL EXCHANGE & RELATIONSHIPS. Exchange tangible and intangible rewards in a relationship Love is linked to exchange of rewards Become more committed when it is perceived that the value of each persons outcomes equal or proportional to the value of our investments. Equity is valued

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SOCIAL EXCHANGE & RELATIONSHIPS

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Social exchange relationships

SOCIAL EXCHANGE & RELATIONSHIPS

  • Exchange tangible and intangible rewards in a relationship

  • Love is linked to exchange of rewards

  • Become more committed when it is perceived that the value of each persons outcomes equal or proportional to the value of our investments


Social exchange relationships

  • Equity is valued

  • But, Equity may be destabilizing as it recognizes status differentials, and

  • therefore, people in relationships do not have the same value

  • Relationships develop because rewards are reinforcing and are greater than costs


Interdependency

INTERDEPENDENCY

  • Rewards must promote interdependency for relationship to progress to more intimate levels

  • Interdependence -- extent to which one’s outcome’s --returns-- depend on outcomes received by partner, and

  • degree to which each one’s profits are greater than likely in another relationship.


Self interest anchors relationships

Self Interest Anchors Relationships

  • We seek out those we anticipate will be rewarding

  • We need to provide rewards to get rewards

  • Reciprocity of rewards important

  • Seek out only those partners who are:

    • a) “attractive” to us

    • b) likely to reciprocate


Social exchange relationships

  • Relationships often fail to progress beyond initial encounters because

  • Types of rewards are readily available from a number of sources (e.g., approval for information)

  • Not profitable enough to assume cost of increased involvement


What is a reward

WHAT IS A REWARD?

  • Don’t always know in advance - often ex post facto - tautology - a reward is rewarding

  • “Rewards” can be costs as well (e.g., assistance from another)

  • Social Approval is not always rewarding (e.g., compliments from unappealing person)

  • How are values determined? How much love; how much information?


What is fair

WHAT IS FAIR?

  • Does fair mean Equitable?

  • What is equitable?

  • What Decision Rules might define equitable?


Fairness decision rules

Fairness Decision Rules

  • Maximize joint profits (Cooperative Behavior)

  • Maximize other’s profits (altruism)

  • Maximize difference between own & other’s profits (e.g., elites)

  • Keep relative distance the same (status consistency)

  • Contribution rule (outcomes match contribution)

  • Need Rule (outcome matches needs)

  • Equality (divide equally)


Limitations of social exchange theories

Limitations of Social Exchange Theories

  • Are people really that self-interested?

    • Is altruism really self-interest

  • Are people really that calculating

    • assumes active and highly aware

  • Are people that goal oriented?

    • assumes intent to maximize profits

    • assumes we interact because others control valuables/necessities

    • assumes to induce rewards must give rewards


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