Points we will cover: . The Treaty of Versailles The depression Background to the Nazi Party Anti-Semitism and the Master Race Growth of membership Munich Putsch ‘Mein Kampf ’ Becoming chancellor Personality and Methods. The Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty’s aims
to treat Germany
Germany’s sense of outrage
1. The Great Depression was an economic slump sparked by the collapse of the New York stock exchange in 1929.
2. It devastated the US economy, caused unemployment to soar and created significant social suffering.
3. It hit Germany after US financiers halted or withdrew loans, fatally undermining the German economy and industries.
4. By 1933 more than 6 million Germans were out of work, while many families struggled to afford food.
5. The Weimar government’s response to the crisis was ineffective, and probably even worsened its effects.
against the Jews once Hitler became Chancellor
-Hitler collected his storm troopers and told them to be ready to rebel. But then, on 4 October 1923, Kahr and Lossow called off the rebellion.
-On the night of 8 November 1923, Hitler and 600 storm troopers burst into a meeting that Kahr and Lossow were holding at the local Beer Hall.
-The next day, 9 November 1923, Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a triumphal march to take power.
-However, Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. There was a short scuffle in which the police killed 16 Nazis. Hitler fled, but was arrested two days later.
-By 1923, the Nazi party had a lot of members and was stronger than ever before.
-The Weimar Republic was in crisis and about to collapse.
-Hitler thought he would be helped by important nationalist politicians.
-Hitler had a huge army of storm troopers, but he knew he would lose control of them if he did not give them something to do.
-Mein Kampf is an autobiographical manifesto by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler written while he was imprisoned.
-In Mein Kampf, Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril".
-During his work, Hitler blamed the Weimar Republic, the Jews, and Social Democrats, as well as Marxists.
-He announced that he wanted to completely destroy the parliamentary system and the “weaker” races.
“The stronger must dominate and not mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher nature. Only the born weakling can look upon this principle as cruel, and if he does so it is merely because he is of a feebler nature and narrower mind.”
“the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew.”
Hitler's rise to power was based upon long-term factors :
→ resentment of the german people after the first world war
→ the weakness of the Weimar system - which he exploited through propaganda (paid for by his rich, Communist-fearing backers)
→ the brilliance of his speeches.
When the Great Depression ruined their lives, Germans voted for him in increasing numbers. Needing support, and thinking he could control Hitler, President Hindenburg made the mistake in January 1933 of giving Hitler the post of Chancellor.
- Hitler's speeches were inspiring. His policies made sense and were aimed at the areas of politics that the German masses were resentful such as the treaty of Versailles and reparations.
-He had an impressive use of force and discipline to control his men.
-Education and youth