Branches of social sciences
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Branches of Social Sciences. Anthropology: The holistic “science of man” Archeology: Study of “prehistory” cultures/societies through artifacts, remains, etc. Physical Anthropology: also called biological anthro . Studies human development ie . Study of primates, early hominids, etc.

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Branches of Social Sciences

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Branches of social sciences

Branches of Social Sciences

Anthropology: The holistic “science of man”

Archeology: Study of “prehistory” cultures/societies through artifacts, remains, etc.

Physical Anthropology: also called biological anthro. Studies human development ie. Study of primates, early hominids, etc.

Cultural Anthropology: The study of culture and cultural change.


Branches of social sciences

“Prehistory” Eras or Ages


Branches of social sciences

Geography:

Physical Geography: examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil, water, and landforms are produced and interact. http://encarta.msn.com/map_701511747/china.html

Human Geography: focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy.


The world at night

The world at night


Human cultural geography

Human/Cultural Geography

  • What is one of the most common and important features or man created “objects” in geography?


Psychology

Psychology:

the study of behavior and mental processes.


Branches of social sciences

Economics: A social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth.


Branches of social sciences

History: History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research of past events as relating to the human species; as well as the study of all events in time, in relation to humanity.


Branches of social sciences

Sociology: the study of society and human social action. It generally concerns itself with the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life.


Branches of social sciences

Religious studies:The academic field of multi-disciplinary, SECULAR study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically-based, and cross-cultural perspectives.

While theology attempts to understand the intentions of a supernatural force (such as deities), religious studies tries to study human religious behavior and belief from outside any particular religious viewpoint. Religious studies draws upon multiple disciplines and their methodologies including anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, and history of religion.


Branches of social sciences

  • Political Science:

  • deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. Three “sub-branches”:

  • political philosophy

  • comparative politics

  • International relations


Scientific method

Scientific Method

Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurableevidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.


Scientific method and the social sciences

Scientific Method and the Social Sciences

  • Belief can alter observations; those with a particular belief will often see things as reinforcing their belief, even if to another observer they would appear not to do so.

  • People observe what they expect to observe, until shown otherwise; our beliefs will affect our observations (and therefore our subsequent actions). The purpose of the scientific method is to test a hypothesis, a proposed explanation about how things are, via repeatable experimental observations which can contradict the hypothesis so as to fight this observer bias.

  • This can be especially hard in the social sciences. The “rose colored glasses” or “cultural lens” can make observations in the social sciences problematic.


Branches of social sciences

Data:

(plural form of datum) A collection of pieces of information, generally taking the form of numbers, text, bits, or facts.

Fact:

A fact (derived from the Latin Factum) is something that has really occurred or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability that is whether it can be shown to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Scientific facts are verified by repeatable experiments.


Branches of social sciences

Inference:

Is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

Hypothesis:

From the Greek word hypothesis meaning assumption or the basis of an argument, a hypothesis is a proposal intended to explain certain observations or phenomenon. In science, hypotheses represent the basis of scientific research, which is pursued to objectively determine whether or not a hypothesis is correct.


Rose colored glasses

“Rose Colored Glasses”

  • Suspension of cultural or personal values.

  • Social Scientists must take an Objective point of view


Scenario 1

Scenario 1:

  • Culture X takes its elders, once they reach the age of 50, and places them in the wilderness to die of exposure. They get no food or water, but sit on a raised platform until they perish.

    How would you describe this culture? Is it a “just” society? Is this an “evil” practice?


Scenario 2 dictatorship in africa

Scenario 2: Dictatorship in Africa

  • An African dictator rules a small nation with an iron fist. When he came to power, he massacred thousands. Today, after 20+ years in power, he rules with absolute authority; dissidents are imprisoned, tortured and executed.

    What are your thoughts on this country?


Branches of social sciences

Scenario 3: Rhino PoachingThe Rhino International Foundation puts the East's one-horned rhino species at about 2,800, the Sumatran rhino at 200, and the Javan species at a tragic 40 to 50.


Thoughts feelings

Thoughts? Feelings?


Branches of social sciences

If these were your children, would you Poach a Rhino for it’s horns?“…Zambian slum dwellers and subsistence farmers, who make less than 25 kwacha (about $1.50) a day, can make as much as 8000 kwacha (approximately $500) for each horn brought back to the middlemen who bankroll the operation.” (http://www1.american.edu/TED/rhinoblk.htm)


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