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Chapter 23: Circulation. NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?. C irculatory system. - system of internal transport. Q. What needs to be transported?. - oxygen, RBC’s. - carbon dioxide. - nutrients. - waste products of metabolism.

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slide1

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

- system of internal transport

Q. What needs to be transported?

- oxygen, RBC’s

- carbon dioxide

- nutrients

- waste products of metabolism

(CO2 to lungs, urea and other waste to kidneys)

- hormones

- body defense substances like antibodies and WBC

- temp. regulation (heat transfer)

Q. When would an organism not need a CS?

When every cell is in contact with the outside world and get what it needs (nutrients, etc…) and can get rid of waste.

slide2

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

1. must reach EVERY cell

a. capillaries

- tiny blood vessels

Fig. 23.1A

- within a few cells of every cell

- Site of diffusion; one cell width in diameter

b. interstitial fluid

- “pond” b/w capillaries and tissue cells

Nutrients and wastes diffusing between the capillaries (top), interstitial fluid (blue) and tissue cells (bottom).

Fig. 23.1B

slide3

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

2. Many animals do not have a true circulatory system

a. Porifera

- Circulation achieved by flagellated collar cells circulating sea water through the pores up and out through the osculum.

slide4

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

2. Many animals do not have a true circulatory system

a. Cnidaria

Use GV cavity as “circulatory system”

Fig. 23.2A

slide5

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

slide6

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

2. Many animals do not have a true circulatory system

a. Cnidaria

b. Platyhelminthes (phylum)

Planaria - tiny (3-12mm) freshwater flat worm

Use GV cavity as “circulatory system”

Fig. 23.2A

slide7

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

Fig. 23.2B

slide8

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

i. many invertebrates

- mollusks (phylum containing snails, clams, squids etc…)

- arthropods

ii. open ended vessels

iii.blood and interstitial fluid are the same

Fig. 23.2B

slide9

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

i. many invertebrates

- mollusks (phylum containing snails, clams, squids etc…)

- arthropods

ii. open ended vessels

iii.blood and interstitial fluid are the same – called hemolymph

iv. grasshopper

Hemolymph is moved toward the abdomen/tail end by rhythmic muscle contractions and enters the pores of tubular heart. Pores have a one way valve so hemolymph cannot flow back into body cavity, but is forced through open-ended tubes to maintain circulation when hearts pump.

Fig. 23.2B

slide10

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

i. many invertebrates

- mollusks (phylum containing snails, clams, squids etc…)

- arthropods

ii. open ended vessels

iii.blood and interstitial fluid are the same – called hemolymph

iv. grasshopper

Reminder, circulatory system NOT used for transport of gases (O2, CO2) as tracheal system will do this.

Fig. 23.2B

slide11

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

i. many invertebrates

- mollusks (phylum containing snails, clams, squids etc…)

- arthropods

ii. open ended vessels

iii.blood and interstitial fluid are the same – called hemolymph

iv. grasshopper

It is much like a fish tank where the tubular hearts would be like the filter in that is sucks water from the tank and puts it back in. The tank would be the body cavity.

Fig. 23.2B

slide12

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

a. Open circulatory system

i. many invertebrates

- mollusks (phylum containing snails, clams, squids etc…)

- arthropods

ii. open ended vessels

iii.blood and interstitial fluid are the same – called hemolymph

iv. grasshopper

Advantages and Disadvantages

Less efficient as oxygen, nutrients and waste products like CO2 are constantly mixed in the coelum (body cavity), but costs less ATP to move fluid due to lower hydrostatic pressure.

Fig. 23.2B

slide13

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

slide14

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

(cardiovascular system)

b. Closed circulatory system

i. Blood confined to vessels

ii. Three types of vessels

- arteries

- veins

- capillaries

iii. Earthworm (Annelida)

- aortic arches “heart”

- dorsal/ventral vessels

- Peristalsis moves blood through vessels in combination with hearts pumping

Fig. 23.2C

slide15

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

(cardiovascular system)

b. Closed circulatory system

i. Blood confined to vessels

ii. Three types of vessels

- arteries

- veins

- capillaries

iii. Earthworm (Annelida)

- aortic arches “heart”

- dorsal/ventral vessels

- Peristalsis moves blood through vessels in combination with hearts pumping

The dorsal blood vessels are responsible for carrying blood to the front of the earthworm’s body. The ventral blood vessels are responsible for carrying blood to the back of the earthworm’s body.

slide16

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

(cardiovascular system)

b. Closed circulatory system

i. Blood confined to vessels

ii. Three types of vessels

- arteries

- veins

- capillaries

iii. Fish

- two chamber heart

- follow the path of blood

Fig. 23.2C

slide17

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

(cardiovascular system)

b. Closed circulatory system

i. Blood confined to vessels

ii. Three types of vessels

- arteries

- veins

- capillaries

iii. Fish

- two chamber heart

- follow the path of blood

Fig. 23.2C

slide18

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

c. Compare the CVS of fish and mammals

i. Fish

- single circuit

- heart sees only oxygen poor blood

- blood helped along by movement

Fig. 23.3

slide19

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

c. Compare the CVS of fish and mammals

Fig. 23.3

slide20

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

c. Compare the CVS of fish and mammals

ii. Mammals (and birds – convergent evo)

- two pumps in one (double circulation)

- 4 chamber heart

- dual circuit (pulmonary and systemic)

- right side O2 poor, left side O2 rich

- Compare flow rate

- Follow flow path

Q. Why do endotherms need a greater flow rate?

Endotherms use 10X as much energy as equal size ectotherm – circ system must deliver 10X as much fuel and O2 and remove 10X as much waste.

Fig. 23.3

slide21

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

Circulatory system

3. Two basic true circulatory systems have evolved

d. Mammals and birds evolved not from fish, but from reptiles. Hypothesize the number of chambers in a reptilian heart?

iii. Amphibians and some reptiles

- Have a three chambered heart (2 atria and one ventricle) where blood mixes in the ventricle and is sent to the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Less efficient than birds and mammals.

slide22

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

1. Heart

a. Size?

b. location?

c. composition?

- compare walls of atria to those of ventricles.

d. Explain the purpose of valves

Fig. 23.4

Alternative valve names

slide23

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

slide24

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

slide25

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

a. Start at RV

b. RV to R,L pulmonary artery through semilunar valve

c. R,L PA to lungs

- O2 and CO2 exchange in lung cap.

d. Lungs to LA via pulm. veins

e. LA to LV through AV valve

f. LV to aorta through SL valve

Fig. 23.4

slide26

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

a. Start at RV

b. RV to R,L pulmonary artery through semilunar valve

c. R,L PA to lungs

- O2 and CO2 exchange in lung cap.

d. Lungs to LA via pulm. veins

e. LA to LV through AV valve

f. LV to aorta through SL valve

g. Arteries branch off aorta north to head and arms

h. Aorta heads south where arteries branch to abdominal organs an legs

Fig. 23.4

slide27

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

slide28

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

a. Start at RV

b. RV to R,L pulmonary artery through semilunar valve

c. R,L PA to lungs

- O2 and CO2 exchange in lung cap.

d. Lungs to LA via pulm. veins

e. LA to LV through AV valve

f. LV to aorta through SL valve

g. Arteries branch off aorta north to head and arms

h. Aorta heads south where arteries branch to abdominal organs an legs

Fig. 23.4

slide29

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

(exchange O2/CO2/nutrients/etc..)

i. Arteries ->

Arterioles ->

Capillary beds ->

Veins

Venules ->

j. Upper body veins drain into superior vena cava

k. Lower body to inferior vena cava

l. SVC and IFC empty into RA

Fig. 23.4

slide30

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

(exchange O2/CO2/nutrients/etc..)

i. Arteries ->

Arterioles ->

Capillary beds ->

Veins

Venules ->

j. Upper body veins drain into superior vena cava

k. Lower body to inferior vena cava

l. SVC and IFC empty into RA

Fig. 23.4

slide31

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

2. Follow the flow

(exchange O2/CO2/nutrients/etc..)

i. Arteries ->

Arterioles ->

Capillary beds ->

Veins

Venules ->

j. Upper body veins drain into superior vena cava

k. Lower body to inferior vena cava

l. SVC and IVC empty into RA

m. RA to RV through AV valve

Q. Explain why the wall of the LV is thicker than that of the RV?

Fig. 23.4

slide32

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT (loose connective tissue)

iii. smooth inner surface

Fig. 23.5

slide33

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

Fig. 23.5

slide34

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

Fig. 23.5

slide35

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- outer layer of elastic conn. tissue

Fig. 23.5

slide36

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- outer layer of elastic conn. tissue

Fig. 23.5

slide37

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- Needs to be thicker as they receive high pressure blood from the heart.

Fig. 23.5

http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=14555&TC=&A=1189

slide38

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- outer layer of elastic conn. tissue to recoil after expanding

c. Many veins have valves to maintain unidirectional flow

Fig. 23.5

http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=14555&TC=&A=1189

slide39

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- outer layer of elastic conn. tissue

c. Many veins have valves

Fig. 23.9B

http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=14555&TC=&A=1189

slide40

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

3. Structure-function of blood vessels

a. capillaries

i. thin walls

ii. simple squamous wrapped in LCT

iii. smooth inner surface

b. Arteries and veins

i. thicker walls

- same epithelium

- layer of smooth muscle

- thicker in arteries

- outer layer of elastic conn. tissue

c. Many veins have valves

Fig. 23.5

http://ebsco.smartimagebase.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=14555&TC=&A=1189

slide41

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

4. Rhythmic Heart Contraction

a. Cardiac cycle

i Complete sequence of filling and pumping heart

ii. Two phases

- diastolic

- heart at rest

- AV valves open

- SL valves closed

- all chambers fill with blood

Fig. 23.6

http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/pharm/hyper_heart1.html

slide42

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/pharm/hyper_heart1.html

The Human Circulatory System

Fig. 23.6

4. Rhythmic Heart Contraction

a. Cardiac cycle

i Complete sequence of filling and pumping heart

ii. Two phases

- systolic

- atria contract

“dub”

- ventricles fill-up

- ventricles contract

- AV valves slam shut (“lub”)

- SL valves open

- blood enters atria

“lub”

- SL valves close (“dub”)

b. Heart murmur

- Occurs when a valve leaks a bit, you can hear a faint ”swish” with a stethoscope.

slide43

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

a. Sinoatrial node (SA) node

- heart’s natural pacemaker

- generates an electrical signal

- travels through atria to AV node

- Called Perkinje fibers

Fig. 23.7

slide44

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

b. Atrioventricular (AV) node

- .1 sec delay after receiving signal

- sends new electrical signal to ventricles

- ventricles contract

Fig. 23.7

slide45

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

* Conclusion: heart will beat at an extrinisic rate of 60-100 beats per minute if removed from body all by itself (Indiana Jones and the temple of doom), typically faster than normal. The brain has control over the rate at which it beats….next slide

Fig. 23.7

slide46

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

Vagus nerve (X – 10th – cranial nerve)

Innervates the SA node and send signals to slow it down

Sympathetic cardiac nerve (spinal nerves)

Innervates the SA node and send signals to speed up

Hormones

Ex. Andrenaline (epinephrine)

- Speed up SA node

Fig. 23.7

slide47

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

The 12 cranial nerves

Fig. 23.7

slide48

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)

- electrical signal of heart generates electrical signal in skin

Fig. 23.7

slide49

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

5. Keeping the Rhythm

b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)

- electrical signal of heart generates electrical signal in skin

slide50

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

6. Failure of the heart’s pacemaker

a. Artificial pacemaker

- tiny electronic device inserted near AV node to control heart rate

slide51

Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion

AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition?

Milestone Questions

1. Compare an open to a closed circulatory system.

2. How is the circulatory system of fish different than mammals and birds?

3. Blood returning to the mammalian heart from the pulmonary vein will drain first into…

4. Why do we call certain vessels arteries and others veins?

5. Blood draining into the aorta was just in the…

slide52

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

a. Chronic CV disease

- plaques develop on inner walls of arteries due to diet/genetics blocking blood flow

- These are also sites of irregular blood clot formation that can lead to a thromboembolism of the heart (heart attack) or brain (stroke).

  • Thrombo = blood clot
  • Embolism = lodging of a traveling mass (embolus) in a blood vessel

- A blood clots that form elsewhere in the CV system and breaks off, getting trapped in small vessels (thromboembolism)

b. Leading cause of heart attack and stroke

Fig. 23.8B

slide53

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

a. Chronic CV disease

Naturally selected under condition of vitamin C deficiency?

Fig. 23.8B

slide54

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Heart Attack (myocardial infarction)

a. Coronary arteries

- blockage

- 1/3rd people die immediately

- survivors have impaired ability to pump blood; cardiac muscle does not regenerate well and is replaced with inelastic scar tissue.

- leading cause of death in US

Fig. 23.8A

http://www.healthcentral.com/cholesterol/understanding-cholesterol-13-115.html

slide55

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Stroke

a. Rapid loss of brain function

- caused by disturbance in blood vessels in brain – either a blockage or a burst.

Aneurysm – swelling of a blood vessel caused by weakening of the vessel walls. The larger the aneurysm the more likely it will burst.

- Neurons being serviced by this vessel die; neurons do not regenerate.

slide56

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Lovastatin

Atherosclerosis

c. Treatment

- drugs to lower cholesterol (LDL; low density lipoprotein) levels in bloods

Ex. Statins

- Class of drugs that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase

In 1971, Akira Endo, a Japanese biochemist working for the pharmaceutical company Sankyo, began the search for a cholesterol-lowering drug. Research had already shown that cholesterol is mostly manufactured by the body in the liver, using an enzyme known as HMG-CoA reductase.[4] Endo and his team reasoned that certain microorganisms may produce inhibitors of the enzyme to defend themselves against other organisms, as mevalonate is a precursor of many substances required by organisms for the maintenance of their cell wall (ergosterol) or cytoskeleton (isoprenoids).[46] The first agent they identified was mevastatin (ML-236B), a molecule produced by the fungus Penicillium citrinum.

slide57

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

c. Treatment

Invasive (surgical) solution:

angioplasty

Insert a device containing a balloon on the end and inflate the balloon thereby pushing the plaque out of the way.

slide58

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

c. Treatment

Invasive (surgical) solution:

- angioplasty

- stenting

Perform the angioplasty with an expandable mesh that will be left in place to hold the vessel open and keep the plaque out of the way.

slide59

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

c. Treatment

Invasive (surgical) solution:

- angioplasty

- stenting

- coronary bypass

Run a vein from the leg between aorta or some other local artery to a point past the blockage assuring blood flow to the downstream region.

slide60

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

7. Cardiovascular Disease

Atherosclerosis

c. Treatment

What about diet?

Not so successful as we can synthesize cholesterol as shown and therefore our body maintains its programmed homeostatic level.

Vitamin C?

Linus Pauling thought so….

slide61

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

8. Blood Pressure

a. Force exerted on walls of blood vessels

- keeps blood moving through system – heart pumps blood into arteries and arteries will swell and rebound aiding in the movement of the blood.

- pulse

b. Two different pressures

- systolic pressure

- diastolic pressure

c. What determines blood pressure?

- cardiac output

- resistance to blood flow imposed by narrow opening of arterioles

- friction in capillaries

Fig. 23.9A

- Clogged arteries

slide62

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

120/80 (in mmHg)

What do these numbers mean?

Blood pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope. When the cuff is inflated, it will cut off blood flow to the arm as shown.

Sphygmomanometer – blood pressure cuff used to measure blood pressure

slide63

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

What do these numbers mean?

120/80

The medical worker will slowly decrease the pressure in the cuff…

Fig. 23.9A

slide64

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

What do these numbers mean?

120/80

When the pressure in the cuff falls below the pressure exerted by the heart on the arteries when it pumps, blood will move past the cuff and be heard. This is the systolic pressure as it is the pressure exerted during the systolic (pumping) phase of the cardiac cycle = 120mm Hg in this case.

Fig. 23.9A

slide65

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

What do these numbers mean?

120/80

Nothing is heard when the heart is not beating (diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle) since the pressure in the arteries is lower. Therefore it is only heard when the heart beats at this time.

Fig. 23.9A

slide66

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

What do these numbers mean?

120/80

The pressure in the cuff will be lowered even further until blood flow is no longer heard indicating a smooth, continuous flow of blood = the diastolic or resting pressure (80mm Hg in this case).

Fig. 23.9A

slide67

Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

a. Measure pressure on arterial walls

b. Average “normal” blood pressure

What do these numbers mean?

120/80

Top number is systolic pressure.

Bottom number is diastolic pressure.

Fig. 23.9A

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW AIM: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

c. Hypertension

i. High blood pressure

- persistent systolic pressure > 140

and/or

- diastolic pressure > 90

ii. Affects 25% of population

iii. “silent killer”

- weakens heart and blood vessels

- heart failure, heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, vision loss

- promotes plaque formation

iv. Risk factors

- age, race, family history, excess weight, inactivity, Tobacco use, excessive alcohol, stress, sleep apnea, etc…

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

c. Hypertension

v. How can we control hypertension?

- diet

- exercise

- avoid excess alcohol

- avoid smoking

- Medication to lower the pressure

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

c. Hypertension

Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system

Regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance in the body.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

9. Measuring Blood Pressure

c. Hypertension

Antihypertensive drugs

  • Diuretics
  • Adrenergic Receptor inhibitors
    • Beta blockers and alpha blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Renin inhibitors
  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor inhibitors
  • Aldosterone receptor inhibitors
  • Vasodilators
  • Alpha-2 agonists
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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

10. How does our body regulate blood pressure and blood distribution?

Fig. 23.11

a. Constrict smooth muscles in arterioles leading to capillaries (vasoconstriction)

b. Constrict smooth muscles within capillary beds

Predict what would happen in blood capillary beds of the digestive tract before and after eating.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

10. How does our body regulate blood pressure and blood distribution?

Fig. 23.11

a. Constrict smooth muscles in arterioles leading to capillaries (vasoconstriction)

b. Constrict smooth muscles within capillary beds

After eating, the sphincter muscles leading to the capillaries of the jejunum would relax allowing maximum blood to enter the jejunum so as to pick up the maximum amount of nutrients.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

11. How are substances transferred through capillary walls?

a. Simple or Facilitated Diffusion through membranes

- Small solutes (O2, CO2, monomers, etc…)

b. Endocytosis/Exocytosis

- larger substances – endocytose on inside and exocytose to interstitial fluid

Fig. 23.12A

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

11. How are substances transferred through capillary walls?

c. Leakage – capillaries are leaking as the cells they are made of are not tightly attached to each other. Therefore, substances smaller than cells can diffuse (passive) out of the blood directly into the interstitial fluid without going through a cell. Also, the pressure exerted by the heart/arteries recoiling can push (active) these substances out between the cells as well.

Fig. 23.12B

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

12. What exactly is…blood?

a. How much blood in an average human?

4 to 6 L (1 to 1.5 gallons)

b. Two main components

Fig. 23.12B

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

12. What exactly is…blood?

a. How much blood in an average human?

4 to 6 L (1 to 1.5 gallons)

b. Two main components

90%

Fig. 23.12B

albumin

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

12. What exactly is…blood?

a. How much blood in an average human?

4 to 6 L (1 to 1.5 gallons)

b. Two main components

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

a. RBC = erythrocytes (Gr erythros, red)

b. 25 to 50 billion in blood

c. Describe their shape (structure)?

- small biconcave disks

- no nuclei

???

- no mitochondria

d. How does this structure fit its function?

- large surface area for O2 diffusion

- pack 250 million hemoglobins per cell, no nucleus to take up space, no mitochondria to use up oxygen being carried. These cells have no reason to divide or make new protein. This is all being done in the bone marrow.

Fig. 23.14

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

e. Site of production?

i. Bone marrow of large bones

pelvis, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, ends of upper humerus and femur

ii. How RBC production is regulated

- erythropoietin (EPO)

EPO is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the kidneys when blood oxygen levels are low, which signals hematopoetic stems cells in the bone marrow to undergo mitosis and make more RBC’s

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

e. Site of production?

i. Bone marrow of large bones

pelvis, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, ends of upper humerus and femur

ii. Predict how RBC production is regulated

- erythropoietin (EPO)

EPO is used as an illegal “performance-enhancing drug”.

The athlete will have more RBC’s circulating and will therefore carry more oxygen to muscle cells for cell respiration thereby generating more ATP – dangerous as blood thickens and can cause heart failure and death.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

f. Life span of an RBC

i. 120 days (3-4 months)

ii. Broken down and recycled by spleen and liver – only the heme is discarded as bilirubin – secreted with bile by the liver (the iron/amino acids are saved and recycled)

iii. At what rate are they dying and being replaced?

~2,000,000 per second

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

g. anemia

i. A qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin

- reduced oxygen carrying capacity

ii. SOME Causes

- excessive blood loss

- sickle cell anemia (genetic)

- Vitamin/mineral deficiency

1. pernicious anemia

- Caused by an impaired absorption of vitamin B-12 by intestines, which is needed to make thymine (nitrogenous base of DNA nucleotides).

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

g. anemia

i. A qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin

- reduced oxygen carrying capacity

ii. SOME Causes

- excessive blood loss

- sickle cell anemia (genetic)

- Vitamin/mineral deficiency

- pernicious anemia

- impaired absorption of vitamin B-12 by intestines

- therefore DNA replication is inhibited resulting in the inhibition of mitosis resulting in fewer, larger RBC’s made

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

13. Structure-function of the Red Blood Cell (RBC)

g. anemia

i. A qualitative or quantitative deficiency of hemoglobin

- reduced oxygen carrying capacity

ii. SOME Causes

- excessive blood loss

- sickle cell anemia (genetic)

- Vitamin/mineral deficiency

1. pernicious anemia

- impaired absorption of vitamin B-12 by intestines

- needed for thymine biosynthesis

No iron, no carrying O2 by hemoglobin

2. iron deficiency (most common cause)

- especially women due to blood loss during menstration

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

14. What about those White Blood Cells (WBC’s)?

a. White blood cell = leukocyte (Gr leukos, white)

i. Help defend the body

- fight infections (pathogens)

- prevent cancer

ii. Five major types

Function of each will be discussed with the immune system. Just now the types for now.

B and T cells

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

14. What about those White Blood Cells (WBC’s)?

a. White blood cell = leukocyte (Gr leukos, white)

i. Help defend the body

- fight infections (pathogens)

- prevent cancer

ii. Five major types

iii. Where would you predict they spend most of their time?

- interstitial fluid

- lymphatic tissue

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

The Lymph System

12. What about those White Blood Cells (WBC’s)?

Substances like water, salts, etc… that diffuse or are pushed out at the capillary beds need to reenter the blood stream. This is accomplished by the lymphatic system.

a. White blood cell = leukocyte (Gr leukos, white)

i. Help defend the body

- fight infections (pathogens)

- prevent cancer

ii. Five major types

iii. Where would you predict they spend most of their time?

- interstitial fluid

- lymphatic tissue

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

The Lymph System

12. What about those White Blood Cells (WBC’s)?

The fluid entering the lymphatic system is now called lymphand will enter at lymphatic capillaries. On its way back to the blood stream it will pass through lymph nodes that contain lots of WBCs, which will destroy any foreign items in the lymph like bacteria and viruses. The lymph will enter back into the circulatory system at the vena cava.

a. White blood cell = leukocyte (Gr leukos, white)

i. Help defend the body

- fight infections (pathogens)

- prevent cancer

ii. Five major types

iii. Where would you predict they spend most of their time?

- interstitial fluid

- lymphatic tissue

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Lymph System

Know the various lymph system organs.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

14. What about those White Blood Cells (WBC’s)?

a. White blood cell = leukocyte (Gr leukos, white)

i. Help defend the body

- fight infections (pathogens)

- prevent cancer

ii. Five major types (already discussed)

iii. Where would you predict they spend most of their time?

- interstitial fluid in tissues

- lymphatic tissue

iv. Predict where white blood cells are produced...

- Same place as the RBC’s…bone marrow – all blood cells are made in the bone marrow.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

a. Blood clotting (coagulation)

1. Vessel gets damaged.

2. Damaged cells release chemicals that make platelets “sticky”

3. Platelets will stick to damaged site serving as the initial “plug”, but this is not enough.

Fig. 23.16

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

a. Blood clotting (coagulation)

4. Stuck Platelets and damaged cells will release a protein called tissue factor or factor III (it’s a kinase), which can start what is known as the coagulation cascade…

Tissue factor

Fig. 23.16

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

a. Blood clotting (coagulation or thrombosis)

5. Coagulation cascade

There are many proteins already in your blood in an inactive form that are involved in forming blood clots…tissue factor will do what?

It will begin their activation (next slide) - phosphorylation

Clotting needs to be fast, you can’t wait for the proteins to be made/secreted, and they obviously need to be inactive (proenzymes) until needed…

Fig. 23.16

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

5. Coagulation cascade

The coagulation cascade is shown to the right (do not memorize), just understand the concept.

Each protein is typically called a “factor” with a roman numeral after it like Factor XII or Factor XI.

The activated form typically has an “a” after it like Factor XIIa means activated Factor XII.

Hirudin (secreted by leeches – hirudinae) inhibits thrombin

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

5. Coagulation cascade

Now look at where it says trauma, lets follow this pathway:

1. Trauma (vessel damage) will result in the activation of Factor VII to VIIa

2. Factor VIIa will bind with tissue factor (released from damaged cell and platelets) to activate Factor X to Xa

3. Factor Xa will activate the protein prothrombin to thrombin.

4.Thrombin will activate fibrinogen to fibrin

5. Fibrin is a fibrous, web-like protein that will stick to the platelets like spiderman’s web and lock them in place

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

a. Blood clotting (coagulation)

iv. Cofactors needed for clotting factors to function properly

- Ca++

- Vitamin K (made by intestinal bacteria)

Fig. 23.16

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

b. Hemophilia

i. group of genetic disorders that impair body\'s ability to control blood clotting.

- Hemophilia A

- most common form

- lack of Factor VIII

- Hemophilia B

- lack of Factor IX

- Hemophilia C

- lack of Factor XI

Why is hemophilia more common in males?

- Sex-linked, genes for factors are on the X chromosome

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

15. What happens when you bust a blood vessel?

c. Thrombosis

i. Formation of a thrombus (blood clot) within a blood vessel.

-Causes

* The composition of the blood (hypercoagulability)

* Quality of the vessel wall (endothelial cell injury)

* Nature of the blood flow

- obstructs blood flow

- Thromboembolism

Thrombus = blood clot

Embolism = when an object migrates from one part of body and causes blockage of a blood vessel in another part.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

16. Leukemia

a. Cancer of white blood cells

b. Occurs in bone marrow

i. displaces normal bone marrow cells

- reduced RBC’s and platelets

- anemia and impaired clotting

- normal WBC’s suppressed or dysfunctional

- suppressed immune system

c. Fatal if not treated

i. Radiation and chemotherapy

ii. Bone marrow transplant

iii. Stem cell treatment

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

17. Fetal Blood Flow

a. Maternal blood supplies fetus with nutrients and O2 and takes away fetal waste. This happens by diffusion through the placenta.

b. Compare hemoglobin in the fetus to hemoglobin in the mother.

Recall that hemoglobin is an example of quartanary structure, and is composed of four polypeptide chains: 2 α and 2 β in us, and 2 α and 2 δ in a fetus.

Why would a fetus need a different form of hemoglobin than the mother?

It is all about affinity for oxygen. Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity. If it didn’t, the oxygen would not move from mom to fetus. The fetus also has 50% more hemoglobin in its blood. The delta (δ) gene is turned off in you and I, while the β gene is turned on.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

17. Fetal Blood Flow

c. Fetal circulation

- Umbilical vein (because it is moving towards the heart) is carrying oxygen/nutrient rich blood to the fetus.

- Follow the blood flow in the diagram:

1. Umbilical vein

2. Through liver to inferior vena cava

3. To right atrium of heart

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

17. Fetal Blood Flow

c. Fetal circulation

- The fetal heart has a hole (foramen ovale) between the atria…why?

- Normally, the blood goes from RA to RV and to lungs, but fetal lungs are non-functional and do not need as much blood.

- Much of the blood flows into the LA, bypassing the lungs so that it can get to the cells in the rest of the body more quickly and efficiently!!

- The foramen ovale closes up at birth.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

17. Fetal Blood Flow

c. Ductus Arteriosus

- A small shunt (passageway) connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta further splitting the oxygenated blood from the placenta to both the body and lungs.

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Chapter 23: Circulation

NEW: How have different organisms evolved to perform circulation?

The Human Circulatory System

17. Fetal Blood Flow

Review

  • Fetal hemoglobin
  • Foramen Ovale
  • Ductus Arteriosus
slide106

Chapter 21: Nutrition and Digestion

AIM: How do animals obtain nutrition?

Milestone Questions

1. What does a blood pressure of 120/80 mean?

2. Identify one surgical treatment of artherosclerosis.

3. What is the function of have a hole (foramen ovale) between atria in an infant heart?

4. Identify the three major cellular components of blood.

5. The Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in regulating…

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