Within families: family-wide and child-specific influences on children’s socio-emotional development Jennifer Jenkins, Jon Rasbash, Tom O’Connor. Behavioral genetic findings of siblings being so different from one another once genetic effects were controlled .
Within families: family-wide and child-specific influences on children’s socio-emotional development Jennifer Jenkins, Jon Rasbash, Tom O’Connor
Focus on the similar and different experiences
of siblings in families
Jenkins, Rasbash, O’Connor (2003) DP
Jenkins, Simpson, Dunn, Rasbash, O’Connor (2005) CD
Jenkins, Dunn, O’Connor, Rasbash, Behnke, JFP. In press
Rasbash, Jenkins, O’Connor, In preparation
Majority of environmental studies of family influences
family and child-specific processes are confounded
Environmental studies using sibling design: unconfounds family and
Measures at the family and child-specific levels
ICC = .52
Family average is a stronger predictor
of sibling negativity than dyad-specific negativity
Girl dyads differ significantly from mixed dyads
Thus there are some systematic reasons that some dyads get on better than others
And shared experiences are important
To what extent do siblings live in shared environments?
Families differ from one another on
how much parental conflict children
Exposure to parental conflict
Children within families differ from one another on how much parental conflict they experience
Exposure to parental conflict
To what extent do siblings live in shared environments? Does this vary as a function of environmental stress?Modeling differential experience in families
family size = 2, no marital problems
family size = 2, marital problems
family size > 2, marital problems
family size > 2, no marital problems
differential positive parenting
Measurement problems. Although in some of the studies the IV and DV are based on different informants, the family clustering information is based on single informant. Degree of family clustering that we see may be related to same person reporting on measures for different siblings
Another method for examining similar and differential experiences in families as well as consistency of behavior when interacting with different members of the family
Actor: c1 c2 m f
We start with 12 relationship scores in each family. These can be classified :
dyad and family
Dyad d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6
Relationship: c1c2c1mc1f c2c1c2m c2f mc1mc2mf fc1fc2fm
Partner: c1 c2 m f
Family:the extent to which families differ from one another
Actor: the extent to which individuals act similarly across relationships.
Partner:the extent to which individuals elicit the same behaviors from others.
Dyad:The extent to which emotion expression is specific to the dyad and based on reciprocity.
People are very consistent in their positivity across relationships irrespective of what their interactional partner is doing. Not so of negativity.
The partner effect is surprisingly small
Negativity is less internal to the person and more sparked off by behavior of interactional partner than positivityHigh reciprocity for negativity
For psychologists the statistics get very
Cross discipline collaboration is essential!!!