Environmental systems
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Environmental Systems. Oxygen Systems. What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?. Oxygen Systems. What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems? Continuous-flow Diluter-demand Pressure-demand. Continuous-flow. Name three types of Continuous-flow oxygen systems?.

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Environmental systems

Environmental Systems


Oxygen systems

Oxygen Systems

  • What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?


Oxygen systems1

Oxygen Systems

  • What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?

    • Continuous-flow

    • Diluter-demand

    • Pressure-demand


Continuous flow

Continuous-flow

  • Name three types of Continuous-flow oxygen systems?


Continuous flow1

Continuous-flow

  • Constant flow

  • Adjustable-flow

  • Altitude-compensated


Oxygen systems2

Oxygen Systems

  • What is the most popular system in modern aircraft?

  • Altitude-compensated


Oxygen masks

Oxygen Masks

  • Name three types of oxygen masks?


Oxygen masks1

Oxygen Masks

  • Name three types of oxygen masks?

    • Oronasal rebreather

    • Cannula oxygen breathing device

    • Quick-donning


Oxygen systems3

Oxygen Systems

  • With an altitude-compensated regulator and an oronasal rebreather, when will the bag fully inflate?

  • Why?


Oxygen systems4

Oxygen Systems

  • High Altitudes

  • Decreased atmospheric pressure and increased oxygen flow rate


Oxygen systems5

Oxygen Systems

  • In a continuous-flow system when the mask connector contains a flow restrictor, what color is the pilots mask?


Oxygen systems6

Oxygen Systems

  • In a continuous-flow system when the mask connector contains a flow restrictor, what color is the pilots mask?

  • Red


Oxygen systems7

Oxygen Systems

  • To what altitudes are the following oxygen systems usable

  • Continuous-flow


Oxygen systems8

Oxygen Systems

  • Continuous-flow25,000

  • Diluter-demand


Oxygen systems9

Oxygen Systems

  • Continuous-flow25,000

  • Diluter-demand40,000

  • Pressure-demand


Oxygen systems10

Oxygen Systems

  • Continuous-flow25,000

  • Diluter-demand40,000

  • Pressure-demandabove 40,000


Oxygen systems11

Oxygen Systems

  • What kind do we have in the King Air?

  • Pilots have Diluter demand

  • Passengers have Constant flow.


Oxygen systems12

Oxygen Systems

  • How can oxygen be stored?


Oxygen systems13

Oxygen Systems

  • Cylinders or Chemical Oxygen Generators


Oxygen systems14

Oxygen Systems

  • Where do we get oxygen to refill cylinders?

  • Look in the Airport Facility Directory. Ensure you use aviation oxygen.


Oxygen systems15

Oxygen Systems

  • What color are most high pressure oxygen cylinders painted?

  • Green


Oxygen systems16

Oxygen Systems

  • What is the lowest pressure to which an oxygen bottle should be depleted?

  • Why?


Oxygen systems17

Oxygen Systems

  • What is the lowest pressure to which an oxygen bottle should be depleted? 50 psi

  • Why?

  • To prevent moisture from entering the cylinder


Oxygen systems18

Oxygen Systems

  • How long will an 66 cu ft cylinder of oxygen last?


Oxygen systems19

Oxygen Systems

  • How long will an 66 cu ft cylinder of oxygen last?

  • Depends on the temperature, pressure in the bottle and the number of people using the bottle.


Oxygen systems20

Oxygen Systems

  • What are the pilot oxygen requirement for Part 91 flying


Oxygen systems21

Oxygen Systems

  • FAR 91.211 From 12,500 to 14,000 feet flight crew up to 30 minutes without.

  • Over 14,000 minimum flight crew must be provided and use supplemental oxygen


Oxygen systems22

Oxygen Systems

  • Over 15,000 each occupant must be provided supplemental oxygen.


Oxygen systems23

Oxygen Systems

  • What are the pilot supplemental oxygen requirement for Part 135 flying?


Oxygen systems24

Oxygen Systems

  • FAR 135.89 From 10,000 to 12,000 any part of the flight over 30 minutes in duration.

  • Over 12,000 continuously


Cabin pressurization

Cabin Pressurization

  • What training must you receive to act as PIC of an pressurized aircraft certified for operations above 25,000 feet.


Cabin pressurization1

Cabin Pressurization

  • FAR 61.31(g) (1) logged ground training and obtained an endorsement in the person’s logbook or training record.

  • FAR 61.31(g) (2) endorsement for flight, simulator or FTD.


Cabin pressurization2

Cabin Pressurization

  • Ground training

    • High altitude aerodynamics and meteorology

    • Respiration

    • Effects, symptoms and causes of hypoxia


Cabin pressurization3

Cabin Pressurization

  • Duration of consciousness w/o suppl oxygen

  • Effects of long usage of suppl oxygen


Cabin pressurization4

Cabin Pressurization

  • Causes and effects of gas expansion

  • Preventive measures for eliminating gas expansion and high altitude sickness


Cabin pressurization5

Cabin Pressurization

  • Physical phenomena and incidents of decompression

  • Any other physiological aspects of high-altitude flight


Cabin pressurization6

Cabin Pressurization

  • Flight, Simulator or FTD Training

    • Normal operations above 25,000 feet

    • Proper emergency procedures for simulated rapid decompression without actually depressurizing the aircraft

    • Emergency descent procedures


Pressurization components

Pressurization Components

  • What component modulates between open and closed to allow the pressurization air to vent out of the cabin at a controlled rate.


Pressurization components1

Pressurization Components

  • What component modulates between open and closed to allow the pressurization air to vent out of the cabin at a controlled rate.

  • Outflow Valve


Pressurization components2

Pressurization Components

  • If the outflow valve fails, will the pressure continue to rise until we have a rapid decompression?


Pressurization components3

Pressurization Components

  • If the outflow valve fails, will the pressure continue to rise until we have a rapid decompression?

  • No, you can activate the safety/dump valve


Pressurization control

Pressurization Control

  • What is meant by differential range?


Pressurization control1

Pressurization Control

  • What is meant by differential range?

  • When the pressurization system is working to prevent the cabin differential pressure from exceeding maximum limits.


Cabin differential pressure

Cabin Differential Pressure

  • What is the typical cabin differential pressure for general aviation aircraft?

  • 3.35 to 4.5 P.S.I.D

  • For large transport category aircraft

  • 9.0 P.S.I.D


Pressurization control2

Pressurization Control

  • What is meant by isobaric range?


Pressurization control3

Pressurization Control

  • What is meant by isobaric range?

  • When the system is working to maintain the cabin pressure altitude at the preset level.


Cabin pressure controller

Cabin Pressure Controller

  • What three items do you normally set in the cabin pressure control system?


Cabin pressure controller1

Cabin Pressure Controller

  • What three items do you normally set in the cabin pressure control system?

  • Cruise Altitude

  • Cabin Altitude Selected

  • Rate control knob


Instrumentation

Instrumentation

  • Name three instruments used in conjunction with the pressure controller.


Instrumentation1

Instrumentation

  • Name three instruments used in conjunction with the pressure controller.

  • Cabin Differential Pressure Gage

  • Cabin Altimeter

  • Cabin rate-of-climb instrument


Pressurization control4

Pressurization Control

  • When operating in the isobaric range, what will happen if you make a sudden change in the cabin altitude selected?


Pressurization control5

Pressurization Control

  • Extreme changes in cabin pressure causing significant pain to you and your passengers


Pressurized air

Pressurized Air

  • In most light pressurized aircraft the pressurized air comes from the turbocharger’s compressor. What must be done to it before it is usable?


Pressurized air1

Pressurized Air

  • In most light pressurized aircraft the pressurized air comes from the turbocharger’s compressor. What must be done to it before it is usable?

  • It must be cooled in a heat exchanger.


Emergencies

Emergencies

  • What are the most likely causes of rapid and explosive decompressions?


Emergencies1

Emergencies

  • What are the most likely causes of rapid and explosive decompressions?

  • Failure of the Windshield, cabin window or door.


Minimum oxygen

Minimum Oxygen

  • What is the minimum oxygen supply for flying in a pressurized cabin above FL 250?


Minimum oxygen1

Minimum Oxygen

  • What is the minimum oxygen supply for flying in a pressurized cabin above FL 250?

  • 10 minutes


Oxygen masks2

Oxygen Masks

  • What oxygen mask requirements exist for flying above FL350.


Oxygen masks3

Oxygen Masks

  • Generally, one pilot at the controls must wear and use an oxygen mask that is secured and sealed.


Oxygen masks4

Oxygen Masks

  • An exception exists below FL 410 if both pilots have quick donning type masks that can be placed on the face with one hand and secured, sealed and operating within 5 sec.


Hypoxia

Hypoxia

  • Name four types of hypoxia and describe them.


Hypoxia1

Hypoxia

  • Name four types of hypoxia and describe them.

  • Hypoxic - altitude hypoxia caused by insufficient partial pressure of oxygen.


Hypoxia2

Hypoxia

  • Histotoxic - Alcohol and drug use, cannot be corrected by supplemental oxygen because the uptake of oxygen is impaired at the tissue level


Hypoxia3

Hypoxia

  • Hypemic - reduction of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood as a result of anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, or excessive smoking.


Hypoxia4

Hypoxia

  • Stagnant hypoxia - poor circulation of the blood because of failure of the circulatory system to pump blood. It can be caused by pressure breathing or excessive G-forces.


Prolonged oxygen use

Prolonged Oxygen Use

  • What are the symptoms of prolonged use of 100% oxygen?


Prolonged oxygen use1

Prolonged Oxygen Use

  • Bronchial cough, fever, vomiting nervousness, irregular heart beat and lowered energy.


Vision

Vision

  • What effect does altitude have on vision?


Vision1

Vision

  • Deteriorate with altitude

  • Empty visual field caused by cloudless blue skies cause inaccuracies in judging speed, size and distance

  • Sunglasses recommended to minimize the intensity of the sun’s ultraviolet rays.


Decompression sickness

Decompression Sickness

  • What are three types of evolved gas decompression sickness.


Decompression sickness1

Decompression Sickness

  • Bends - pain in and around the joints

  • Chokes - Chest pain and burning sensation, a sensation of suffocation.

  • Paresthesia - tingling, itching, red rash, and warm and cold sensations


Anti icing

Anti-icing

De-icing


Anti icing1

Anti Icing

  • When do you want to turn on Anti Icing equipment?


Anti icing2

Anti Icing

  • When do you want to turn on Anti Icing equipment?

  • Prior to encountering ice conditions?


Airfoil ice control

Airfoil Ice Control

  • De-icing Boots

  • Thermal Anti-ice Systems

  • Weeping Wing


Windshield ice control

Windshield Ice Control

  • Alcohol

  • Thermal


Windshield ice control1

Windshield Ice Control

  • What can happen if thermal anti ice is used on the ground?


Windshield ice control2

Windshield Ice Control

  • What can happen if thermal anti ice is used on the ground?

  • Bubbles can develop between the layers of window lamination resulting in the windshield having to be replaced.


Propeller ice control

Propeller Ice Control

  • Thermal

  • Alcohol


Other ice systems

Other Ice Systems

  • Pitot Heat

  • Static Port

  • Fuel Vent

  • Stall Warning Sensors


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What two conditions are necessary for structural ice to form?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Visible water such as rain or clouds

  • Temperature where the moisture strikes the aircraft must be 0 or colder


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What are the three kinds of ice?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What are the three kinds of ice?

  • Clear, Rime and Mixed

  • Which is the most dangerous kind of ice?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Which is the most dangerous kind of ice?

  • Clear. It is very heavy and difficult to remove.


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What kind of ice usually forms on aircraft flying through stratus type clouds?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What kind of ice usually forms on aircraft flying through stratus type clouds?

  • Rime


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What do ice pellets normally mean?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What do ice pellets normally mean?

  • Freezing rain at higher altitudes


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What type of cloud is hail normally associated?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What type of cloud is hail normally associated?

  • Cumulonimbus


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Frost does not change the basic aerodynamic shape of the wing so how does it affect the flow of air over the wing?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Roughness spoils the smooth flow of air causing early flow separation


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What effect does frost have on stall speed?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • What effect does frost have on stall speed?

  • It normally increases stall speed between 5 and 10 per cent


Environmental systems

Ice

  • If you begin to accumulate ice and you anticipate there is a warm front aloft, should you try to climb?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Depends on the situation, but the decision to either turn back or climb should be made quickly before too much ice accumulates which would preclude a climb.


Environmental systems

Ice

  • If you accumulate ice, what precaution should you take on landing?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Avoid abrupt maneuvers because the aircraft has lost some aerodynamic efficiency, land with power at a higher than normal airspeed, be cautious about the use of flaps.


Environmental systems

Ice

  • How can the NWS observe actual icing conditions?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • They cannot. They can identify regions where icing is possible but they need PIREPS to know for sure.


Environmental systems

Ice

  • When you preheat an aircraft, to what items should you pay attention?


Environmental systems

Ice

  • Oil, battery and instruments. You should preheat not only the engine compartment but also the cockpit. Except at KSU-S, because we have had damage to aircraft interiors


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