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Environmental Systems. Oxygen Systems. What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?. Oxygen Systems. What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems? Continuous-flow Diluter-demand Pressure-demand. Continuous-flow. Name three types of Continuous-flow oxygen systems? .

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oxygen systems
Oxygen Systems
  • What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?
oxygen systems1
Oxygen Systems
  • What are three basic configurations of oxygen systems?
    • Continuous-flow
    • Diluter-demand
    • Pressure-demand
continuous flow
Continuous-flow
  • Name three types of Continuous-flow oxygen systems?
continuous flow1
Continuous-flow
  • Constant flow
  • Adjustable-flow
  • Altitude-compensated
oxygen systems2
Oxygen Systems
  • What is the most popular system in modern aircraft?
  • Altitude-compensated
oxygen masks
Oxygen Masks
  • Name three types of oxygen masks?
oxygen masks1
Oxygen Masks
  • Name three types of oxygen masks?
    • Oronasal rebreather
    • Cannula oxygen breathing device
    • Quick-donning
oxygen systems3
Oxygen Systems
  • With an altitude-compensated regulator and an oronasal rebreather, when will the bag fully inflate?
  • Why?
oxygen systems4
Oxygen Systems
  • High Altitudes
  • Decreased atmospheric pressure and increased oxygen flow rate
oxygen systems5
Oxygen Systems
  • In a continuous-flow system when the mask connector contains a flow restrictor, what color is the pilots mask?
oxygen systems6
Oxygen Systems
  • In a continuous-flow system when the mask connector contains a flow restrictor, what color is the pilots mask?
  • Red
oxygen systems7
Oxygen Systems
  • To what altitudes are the following oxygen systems usable
  • Continuous-flow
oxygen systems8
Oxygen Systems
  • Continuous-flow 25,000
  • Diluter-demand
oxygen systems9
Oxygen Systems
  • Continuous-flow 25,000
  • Diluter-demand 40,000
  • Pressure-demand
oxygen systems10
Oxygen Systems
  • Continuous-flow 25,000
  • Diluter-demand 40,000
  • Pressure-demand above 40,000
oxygen systems11
Oxygen Systems
  • What kind do we have in the King Air?
  • Pilots have Diluter demand
  • Passengers have Constant flow.
oxygen systems12
Oxygen Systems
  • How can oxygen be stored?
oxygen systems13
Oxygen Systems
  • Cylinders or Chemical Oxygen Generators
oxygen systems14
Oxygen Systems
  • Where do we get oxygen to refill cylinders?
  • Look in the Airport Facility Directory. Ensure you use aviation oxygen.
oxygen systems15
Oxygen Systems
  • What color are most high pressure oxygen cylinders painted?
  • Green
oxygen systems16
Oxygen Systems
  • What is the lowest pressure to which an oxygen bottle should be depleted?
  • Why?
oxygen systems17
Oxygen Systems
  • What is the lowest pressure to which an oxygen bottle should be depleted? 50 psi
  • Why?
  • To prevent moisture from entering the cylinder
oxygen systems18
Oxygen Systems
  • How long will an 66 cu ft cylinder of oxygen last?
oxygen systems19
Oxygen Systems
  • How long will an 66 cu ft cylinder of oxygen last?
  • Depends on the temperature, pressure in the bottle and the number of people using the bottle.
oxygen systems20
Oxygen Systems
  • What are the pilot oxygen requirement for Part 91 flying
oxygen systems21
Oxygen Systems
  • FAR 91.211 From 12,500 to 14,000 feet flight crew up to 30 minutes without.
  • Over 14,000 minimum flight crew must be provided and use supplemental oxygen
oxygen systems22
Oxygen Systems
  • Over 15,000 each occupant must be provided supplemental oxygen.
oxygen systems23
Oxygen Systems
  • What are the pilot supplemental oxygen requirement for Part 135 flying?
oxygen systems24
Oxygen Systems
  • FAR 135.89 From 10,000 to 12,000 any part of the flight over 30 minutes in duration.
  • Over 12,000 continuously
cabin pressurization
Cabin Pressurization
  • What training must you receive to act as PIC of an pressurized aircraft certified for operations above 25,000 feet.
cabin pressurization1
Cabin Pressurization
  • FAR 61.31(g) (1) logged ground training and obtained an endorsement in the person’s logbook or training record.
  • FAR 61.31(g) (2) endorsement for flight, simulator or FTD.
cabin pressurization2
Cabin Pressurization
  • Ground training
    • High altitude aerodynamics and meteorology
    • Respiration
    • Effects, symptoms and causes of hypoxia
cabin pressurization3
Cabin Pressurization
  • Duration of consciousness w/o suppl oxygen
  • Effects of long usage of suppl oxygen
cabin pressurization4
Cabin Pressurization
  • Causes and effects of gas expansion
  • Preventive measures for eliminating gas expansion and high altitude sickness
cabin pressurization5
Cabin Pressurization
  • Physical phenomena and incidents of decompression
  • Any other physiological aspects of high-altitude flight
cabin pressurization6
Cabin Pressurization
  • Flight, Simulator or FTD Training
    • Normal operations above 25,000 feet
    • Proper emergency procedures for simulated rapid decompression without actually depressurizing the aircraft
    • Emergency descent procedures
pressurization components
Pressurization Components
  • What component modulates between open and closed to allow the pressurization air to vent out of the cabin at a controlled rate.
pressurization components1
Pressurization Components
  • What component modulates between open and closed to allow the pressurization air to vent out of the cabin at a controlled rate.
  • Outflow Valve
pressurization components2
Pressurization Components
  • If the outflow valve fails, will the pressure continue to rise until we have a rapid decompression?
pressurization components3
Pressurization Components
  • If the outflow valve fails, will the pressure continue to rise until we have a rapid decompression?
  • No, you can activate the safety/dump valve
pressurization control
Pressurization Control
  • What is meant by differential range?
pressurization control1
Pressurization Control
  • What is meant by differential range?
  • When the pressurization system is working to prevent the cabin differential pressure from exceeding maximum limits.
cabin differential pressure
Cabin Differential Pressure
  • What is the typical cabin differential pressure for general aviation aircraft?
  • 3.35 to 4.5 P.S.I.D
  • For large transport category aircraft
  • 9.0 P.S.I.D
pressurization control2
Pressurization Control
  • What is meant by isobaric range?
pressurization control3
Pressurization Control
  • What is meant by isobaric range?
  • When the system is working to maintain the cabin pressure altitude at the preset level.
cabin pressure controller
Cabin Pressure Controller
  • What three items do you normally set in the cabin pressure control system?
cabin pressure controller1
Cabin Pressure Controller
  • What three items do you normally set in the cabin pressure control system?
  • Cruise Altitude
  • Cabin Altitude Selected
  • Rate control knob
instrumentation
Instrumentation
  • Name three instruments used in conjunction with the pressure controller.
instrumentation1
Instrumentation
  • Name three instruments used in conjunction with the pressure controller.
  • Cabin Differential Pressure Gage
  • Cabin Altimeter
  • Cabin rate-of-climb instrument
pressurization control4
Pressurization Control
  • When operating in the isobaric range, what will happen if you make a sudden change in the cabin altitude selected?
pressurization control5
Pressurization Control
  • Extreme changes in cabin pressure causing significant pain to you and your passengers
pressurized air
Pressurized Air
  • In most light pressurized aircraft the pressurized air comes from the turbocharger’s compressor. What must be done to it before it is usable?
pressurized air1
Pressurized Air
  • In most light pressurized aircraft the pressurized air comes from the turbocharger’s compressor. What must be done to it before it is usable?
  • It must be cooled in a heat exchanger.
emergencies
Emergencies
  • What are the most likely causes of rapid and explosive decompressions?
emergencies1
Emergencies
  • What are the most likely causes of rapid and explosive decompressions?
  • Failure of the Windshield, cabin window or door.
minimum oxygen
Minimum Oxygen
  • What is the minimum oxygen supply for flying in a pressurized cabin above FL 250?
minimum oxygen1
Minimum Oxygen
  • What is the minimum oxygen supply for flying in a pressurized cabin above FL 250?
  • 10 minutes
oxygen masks2
Oxygen Masks
  • What oxygen mask requirements exist for flying above FL350.
oxygen masks3
Oxygen Masks
  • Generally, one pilot at the controls must wear and use an oxygen mask that is secured and sealed.
oxygen masks4
Oxygen Masks
  • An exception exists below FL 410 if both pilots have quick donning type masks that can be placed on the face with one hand and secured, sealed and operating within 5 sec.
hypoxia
Hypoxia
  • Name four types of hypoxia and describe them.
hypoxia1
Hypoxia
  • Name four types of hypoxia and describe them.
  • Hypoxic - altitude hypoxia caused by insufficient partial pressure of oxygen.
hypoxia2
Hypoxia
  • Histotoxic - Alcohol and drug use, cannot be corrected by supplemental oxygen because the uptake of oxygen is impaired at the tissue level
hypoxia3
Hypoxia
  • Hypemic - reduction of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood as a result of anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning, or excessive smoking.
hypoxia4
Hypoxia
  • Stagnant hypoxia - poor circulation of the blood because of failure of the circulatory system to pump blood. It can be caused by pressure breathing or excessive G-forces.
prolonged oxygen use
Prolonged Oxygen Use
  • What are the symptoms of prolonged use of 100% oxygen?
prolonged oxygen use1
Prolonged Oxygen Use
  • Bronchial cough, fever, vomiting nervousness, irregular heart beat and lowered energy.
vision
Vision
  • What effect does altitude have on vision?
vision1
Vision
  • Deteriorate with altitude
  • Empty visual field caused by cloudless blue skies cause inaccuracies in judging speed, size and distance
  • Sunglasses recommended to minimize the intensity of the sun’s ultraviolet rays.
decompression sickness
Decompression Sickness
  • What are three types of evolved gas decompression sickness.
decompression sickness1
Decompression Sickness
  • Bends - pain in and around the joints
  • Chokes - Chest pain and burning sensation, a sensation of suffocation.
  • Paresthesia - tingling, itching, red rash, and warm and cold sensations
anti icing

Anti-icing

De-icing

anti icing1
Anti Icing
  • When do you want to turn on Anti Icing equipment?
anti icing2
Anti Icing
  • When do you want to turn on Anti Icing equipment?
  • Prior to encountering ice conditions?
airfoil ice control
Airfoil Ice Control
  • De-icing Boots
  • Thermal Anti-ice Systems
  • Weeping Wing
windshield ice control1
Windshield Ice Control
  • What can happen if thermal anti ice is used on the ground?
windshield ice control2
Windshield Ice Control
  • What can happen if thermal anti ice is used on the ground?
  • Bubbles can develop between the layers of window lamination resulting in the windshield having to be replaced.
propeller ice control
Propeller Ice Control
  • Thermal
  • Alcohol
other ice systems
Other Ice Systems
  • Pitot Heat
  • Static Port
  • Fuel Vent
  • Stall Warning Sensors
slide82
Ice
  • What two conditions are necessary for structural ice to form?
slide83
Ice
  • Visible water such as rain or clouds
  • Temperature where the moisture strikes the aircraft must be 0 or colder
slide84
Ice
  • What are the three kinds of ice?
slide85
Ice
  • What are the three kinds of ice?
  • Clear, Rime and Mixed
  • Which is the most dangerous kind of ice?
slide86
Ice
  • Which is the most dangerous kind of ice?
  • Clear. It is very heavy and difficult to remove.
slide87
Ice
  • What kind of ice usually forms on aircraft flying through stratus type clouds?
slide88
Ice
  • What kind of ice usually forms on aircraft flying through stratus type clouds?
  • Rime
slide89
Ice
  • What do ice pellets normally mean?
slide90
Ice
  • What do ice pellets normally mean?
  • Freezing rain at higher altitudes
slide91
Ice
  • What type of cloud is hail normally associated?
slide92
Ice
  • What type of cloud is hail normally associated?
  • Cumulonimbus
slide93
Ice
  • Frost does not change the basic aerodynamic shape of the wing so how does it affect the flow of air over the wing?
slide94
Ice
  • Roughness spoils the smooth flow of air causing early flow separation
slide95
Ice
  • What effect does frost have on stall speed?
slide96
Ice
  • What effect does frost have on stall speed?
  • It normally increases stall speed between 5 and 10 per cent
slide97
Ice
  • If you begin to accumulate ice and you anticipate there is a warm front aloft, should you try to climb?
slide98
Ice
  • Depends on the situation, but the decision to either turn back or climb should be made quickly before too much ice accumulates which would preclude a climb.
slide99
Ice
  • If you accumulate ice, what precaution should you take on landing?
slide100
Ice
  • Avoid abrupt maneuvers because the aircraft has lost some aerodynamic efficiency, land with power at a higher than normal airspeed, be cautious about the use of flaps.
slide101
Ice
  • How can the NWS observe actual icing conditions?
slide102
Ice
  • They cannot. They can identify regions where icing is possible but they need PIREPS to know for sure.
slide103
Ice
  • When you preheat an aircraft, to what items should you pay attention?
slide104
Ice
  • Oil, battery and instruments. You should preheat not only the engine compartment but also the cockpit. Except at KSU-S, because we have had damage to aircraft interiors
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