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Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST. E. Pantin , P.O. Lagage and the MIRI science team. SPITZER (IRAC, 8  m). JWST (MIRI, 7.7  m). Thermal Background. + FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines). NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters.

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observations of proto planetary disks and exo planets with the jwst

Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST

E. Pantin, P.O. Lagage

and the MIRI science team

slide3

SPITZER (IRAC, 8 m)

JWST (MIRI, 7.7 m)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

thermal background
Thermal Background

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

slide5

+ FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

nircam coronagraphic occulters
NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters

2 apodized WEDGES

3 apodized SPOTS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

miri fields of view coronagraphs
MIRI Fields of View, Coronagraphs

4QPM Coronagraphs

15.5µm

11.4µm

10.65µm

24 x 24 arcsec.

Imager

75 x 113 arcsec

Low Resolution Spectrometer

5 x 0.6 arcsec

Medium Resolution Spectrometer

> 3.5 x 3.5 arcsec

Lyot Mask 23mm

30” x 30”

F1550C or (F1550C+ F1140C) => Teff , CO2, clouds

F1065C + F1140C => Ammonia, clouds, T° probe

F0560W => water

F0770W => methane

All + modeling => some atmospheric parameters

Some degeneracies exist => combination with NIR is crucial

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

slide8

Principle of 4QPM

(n-1)e =/2

IWA  /D  0.35"

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

sensitivity
Sensitivity

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

slide13
Major points:
  • extreme sensitivity combined fairly good angular resolution ("a VISIR in space")
  • stability
  • JWST is not meant to discover new exoplanets but characterize already known ones

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

simulated coronagraphic images
Simulated coronagraphic images

NIRCAM:

M0 star

4 pc

2 Mj

7 AU

MIRI:

M2V star

10 pc

5, 10, 15 AU

1h integration

 = 11.4 m

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

rejection performance
Rejection performance

Beichman, 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

parameters space
Parameters space

NIRCAM/TFI/MIRI

M stars

GROUND-BASED IMAGING

Bright early-type stars

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

jwst exoplanets imaging science case

JWST exoplanets imaging science case

A simulated targets sample for exoplanets detection

simulated performances
Simulated performances

Sample program

Monte-Carlo ~700 stars)

1000 runs

d< ~150

age : 1 Myr- 1 Gyr

25 best (highest detection success rate)

1  dispersion, all stars

symbol sizes  fractional detection rate

Beichman et al., 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

full sample
Full sample

MIRI

NIRCAM

TFI-NRM

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

m stars only
M stars only

old planets > Mj

young planets < Mj

NIRCAM

MIRI

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

the adolescent m stars opportunity
The ("adolescent") M stars opportunity

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

the m stars opportunity
The M stars opportunity
  • 12 M0-M5 stars
  • d=10-40 pc
  • ages < 200 Myr
  • TW Hya (10 Myr)
  •  Pic mg (12 Myr)
  • Tucana-Horologium (30 Myr)
  • AB doradus (80 Myr)
  • Castor mg (200 Myr)

complementary NIRCAM and TFI observations are compulsory to assess the planetary nature of sources found !!

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

exoplanets mid ir spectra
Exoplanets mid-IR spectra

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

hot jupiter primary and secondary transits nircam nirspec
Hot Jupiter primary and secondary transits (NIRCAM, NIRspec)

HD209459 b

secondary transit

primary transit

t=6h

courtesy of J. Valenti

hot neptunes spectra (4 transits) are accessible using NIRCAM-NIRspec instruments

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

exo earths transit spectra nirspec mr
Exo-Earths transit spectra (NIRspec, MR)

NIRspec simulated spectrum of a (H2 rich) super-Earth exoplanet (GL581-like, M3, 6 pc, 20 transits)

Clampin, 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

slide31
MIRI
  • transit spectroscopy (probably not as performant as NIRCAM/NIRspec, TBC)
  • imaging (++)
  • spectral deconvolution using the MRS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

the molten exo earths opportunity
The molten exo-Earths opportunity
  • No atmosphere  100 000 yr cooling time
  • Atmosphere  1-10 Myr cooling time

Miller-ricci et al., 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

exo rings
Exo-rings

SECP rings can survive on Gyr-timescales !

Pantin et al., in prep

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

exo rings1
Exo-rings

"Fomalhaut b-like" ring

Detection limit

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

spectroscopy of pp disks a key program for miri gto observations
Spectroscopy of PP disks : a key program for MIRI GTO observations
  • Full inventory of organic (pre-biotic) species :
  • NH3
  • C6H6
  • CH4
  • HCO+
  • HCN

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

goals
Goals
  • study:
  • large-scale geometry of the disks:
    • MIRI tremendous sensitivity allows to observe the disks up to very large distances from the star
    • for the first time, a large sample of T-Tauri disks are observable/resolvable in the mid-IR
  • disks (dust) vertical structure
    • dust settling
    • dust coagulation
    • disks stratification
  • search for forming/formed planets signature:
    • direct detection of forming protoplanet is highly unlikely (brightness [email protected] phase ?)
    • embedded massive bodies produce structures in disks:
      • gaps
      • bright rims
      • asymmetries

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

what do we observe in the mid ir range
What do we observe in the mid-IR range ?

~1 AU,10 mas

  • Mainly the thermal emission from heated dust grains
  • Mainly the inner rim (1500 K) that produces >90% of the total 10 m flux (continuum)

 coronagraphic mode is compulsory to avoid detector saturation (Fmax=20 mJy) and decrease photon noise

  • Once, the inner rim masked/subtracted, the thermal emission produced at the disks\' surface (=1), on intermediate distance scales (3-100 AU)
  • PAH emission (7.7, 8.6, 11.3 m) on larger scales ( Rout)

~100 AU

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

large scale parameters
Large Scale Parameters

HD97048 8.6 m VLT/VISIR

(Lagage et al. 2006)

Star

measure:

  • scale height at a given distance
  • flaring parameter
  • dust sizes vs distance
  • dust composition vs distance

indirect indications/constraints on:

  • gas content
  • turbulence (small grains)
  • surface density

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

disks in transition phase
Disks in "transition" phase

HD 95881 model sketch

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

continuum profiles
Continuum profiles

MIRI

MIRI

In the case of Herbig disks, the PAH emission (8.6, 11.3 m) is brighter and more extended than continuum emission

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

scattered mid ir emission
Scattered mid-IR emission

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

disks appareance
Disks appareance

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

disks appareance as a probe of dust settling
Disks appareance as a probe of dust settling

PAH dominated spectrum

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

simulated observations of a pp disk with a giant exoplanet
Simulated observations of a PP disk with a giant exoplanet

1 [email protected] AU

d = 100 pc

Herbig Ae-type disk

ELT/METIS (2018 + ?)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

why long wavelength data 20 m are also very important
Why "long-wavelength" data (>20 m) are also very important ?

 = 18.7 m

HD142527 Herbig star

VISIR image SiC (10.8 um)

PSF subtraction

1"

11.8 m

11.8 m

19 m

19 m

HD142527 Q2 PSF subtracted

Verhoeff et al., 2010, submitted

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

the miri disks imaging gto sample
The MIRI disks imaging GTO sample
  • 10.6, 11.4, 15.5, 23 m coronagraphic imaging
  • 10 Herbig  / 14 T-Tauri  / 2 brown dwarves
  • A large sample of moderately inclined disks
  • A handful of almost edge-on disks ("disk tomography", direct imaging)
  • a selection of "transition disks" (last stages of planet formation ???)
  • Several star forming regions/evolutionary stages represented (Chameleon, Taurus-Aurigae, Scorpus, Ophiuchi
  • Good overlap/complementarity with the spectroscopic program

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

nircam imaging
NIRCAM imaging

residual wavefront error

(~ 200 "zodis")

 Pic-like disk @ 100 pc

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

miri imaging
MIRI imaging

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

complementary with existing future facilities
Complementary with existing/future facilities

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

conclusions
Conclusions
  • no major step in angular resolution capabilities (~ground)
  • not an exoplanets "hunter"

but

  • amazing sensitivity (extended sources !) and stability: 103 gain factor
  • full set of space-born coronagraphic capabilities 2-25 m
  • JWST will characterizewide separation (5-100 AU) giant exoplanets (M>Ms) and discover new ones around faint (M) stars
  • spectroscopy of giant exoplanets R=10 R=3000
  • unique to detect/characterize thermal emission ( scattered emission) of disks

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

things the jwst cannot or badly do
Things the JWST cannot (or badly) do
  • faint stars (M!), no AO limitation
  • PSF subtraction
  • very long integrations
  • follow-ups

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

compared performances
Compared performances

JWST/MIRI

(see A.Glasse presentation)

  • very good sensitivity to point sources (~1 Jy at 10 m)
  • angular resolution (0.3" at 10 m) comparable to that of current 8m-class telescopes instruments (e.g. VISIR)
  • awesome sensitivity to extended emission (~1 Jy/"2 at 10 m)

ELT/METIS

(see M.Kissler-Patig presentation, B.Brandl poster)

  • good sensitivity to point sources and peaky structures (~25 Jy at 10 m)
  • excellent angular resolution (0.05"/10 m), direct imaging of planetary regions (r<30 AU) in closest disks (d<150 pc) will be achievable
  • very limited sensitivity (~10 mJy/"2, nul in some cases !) to extended emission

Same wavelength coverage, high level of complementary between extended source sensitivity/angular resolution

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry

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