Observations of proto planetary disks and exo planets with the jwst
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Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST. E. Pantin , P.O. Lagage and the MIRI science team. SPITZER (IRAC, 8  m). JWST (MIRI, 7.7  m). Thermal Background. + FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines). NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters.

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Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST

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Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST

E. Pantin, P.O. Lagage

and the MIRI science team


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


SPITZER (IRAC, 8 m)

JWST (MIRI, 7.7 m)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Thermal Background

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


+ FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters

2 apodized WEDGES

3 apodized SPOTS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI Fields of View, Coronagraphs

4QPM Coronagraphs

15.5µm

11.4µm

10.65µm

24 x 24 arcsec.

Imager

75 x 113 arcsec

Low Resolution Spectrometer

5 x 0.6 arcsec

Medium Resolution Spectrometer

> 3.5 x 3.5 arcsec

Lyot Mask 23mm

30” x 30”

F1550C or (F1550C+ F1140C) => Teff , CO2, clouds

F1065C + F1140C => Ammonia, clouds, T° probe

F0560W => water

F0770W => methane

All + modeling => some atmospheric parameters

Some degeneracies exist => combination with NIR is crucial

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Principle of 4QPM

(n-1)e =/2

IWA  /D  0.35"

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Sensitivity

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Major points:

  • extreme sensitivity combined fairly good angular resolution ("a VISIR in space")

  • stability

  • JWST is not meant to discover new exoplanets but characterize already known ones

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo-planets


Exo-planets imaging science case


Simulated coronagraphic images

NIRCAM:

M0 star

4 pc

2 Mj

7 AU

MIRI:

M2V star

10 pc

5, 10, 15 AU

1h integration

 = 11.4 m

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Rejection performance

Beichman, 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Parameters space

NIRCAM/TFI/MIRI

M stars

GROUND-BASED IMAGING

Bright early-type stars

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


JWST exoplanets imaging science case

A simulated targets sample for exoplanets detection


Simulated performances

Sample program

Monte-Carlo ~700 stars)

1000 runs

d< ~150

age : 1 Myr- 1 Gyr

25 best (highest detection success rate)

1  dispersion, all stars

symbol sizes  fractional detection rate

Beichman et al., 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Full sample

MIRI

NIRCAM

TFI-NRM

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


M stars only

old planets > Mj

young planets < Mj

NIRCAM

MIRI

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Giant planets formation mechanism around low-mass stars:The M stars niche for MIRI imager


The ("adolescent") M stars opportunity

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


The M stars opportunity

  • 12 M0-M5 stars

  • d=10-40 pc

  • ages < 200 Myr

  • TW Hya (10 Myr)

  •  Pic mg (12 Myr)

  • Tucana-Horologium (30 Myr)

  • AB doradus (80 Myr)

  • Castor mg (200 Myr)

complementary NIRCAM and TFI observations are compulsory to assess the planetary nature of sources found !!

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exoplanets characterization using mid-IR spectroscopy


Exoplanets mid-IR spectra

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Hot Jupiter primary and secondary transits (NIRCAM, NIRspec)

HD209459 b

secondary transit

primary transit

t=6h

courtesy of J. Valenti

hot neptunes spectra (4 transits) are accessible using NIRCAM-NIRspec instruments

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo-Earths transit spectra (NIRspec, MR)

NIRspec simulated spectrum of a (H2 rich) super-Earth exoplanet (GL581-like, M3, 6 pc, 20 transits)

Clampin, 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI

  • transit spectroscopy (probably not as performant as NIRCAM/NIRspec, TBC)

  • imaging (++)

  • spectral deconvolution using the MRS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


A couple of (non exhaustive) niches concerning telluric planets !


The molten exo-Earths opportunity

  • No atmosphere  100 000 yr cooling time

  • Atmosphere  1-10 Myr cooling time

Miller-ricci et al., 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo-rings

SECP rings can survive on Gyr-timescales !

Pantin et al., in prep

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo-rings

"Fomalhaut b-like" ring

Detection limit

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Circumstellar disks


Spectroscopy of PP disks


Spectroscopy of PP disks : a key program for MIRI GTO observations

  • Full inventory of organic (pre-biotic) species :

  • NH3

  • C6H6

  • CH4

  • HCO+

  • HCN

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


THE MIRI GTO imaging proposal on proto-planeteary disks


Goals

  • study:

  • large-scale geometry of the disks:

    • MIRI tremendous sensitivity allows to observe the disks up to very large distances from the star

    • for the first time, a large sample of T-Tauri disks are observable/resolvable in the mid-IR

  • disks (dust) vertical structure

    • dust settling

    • dust coagulation

    • disks stratification

  • search for forming/formed planets signature:

    • direct detection of forming protoplanet is highly unlikely (brightness [email protected] phase ?)

    • embedded massive bodies produce structures in disks:

      • gaps

      • bright rims

      • asymmetries

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI study of Large Scale Structure ofProtoplanetary Disks


What do we observe in the mid-IR range ?

~1 AU,10 mas

  • Mainly the thermal emission from heated dust grains

  • Mainly the inner rim (1500 K) that produces >90% of the total 10 m flux (continuum)

     coronagraphic mode is compulsory to avoid detector saturation (Fmax=20 mJy) and decrease photon noise

  • Once, the inner rim masked/subtracted, the thermal emission produced at the disks' surface (=1), on intermediate distance scales (3-100 AU)

  • PAH emission (7.7, 8.6, 11.3 m) on larger scales ( Rout)

~100 AU

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Large Scale Parameters

HD97048 8.6 m VLT/VISIR

(Lagage et al. 2006)

Star

measure:

  • scale height at a given distance

  • flaring parameter

  • dust sizes vs distance

  • dust composition vs distance

    indirect indications/constraints on:

  • gas content

  • turbulence (small grains)

  • surface density

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks in "transition" phase

HD 95881 model sketch

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Continuum profiles

MIRI

MIRI

In the case of Herbig disks, the PAH emission (8.6, 11.3 m) is brighter and more extended than continuum emission

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Scattered mid-IR emission

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI study of Disks Vertical Structure


Disks appareance

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks appareance as a probe of dust settling

PAH dominated spectrum

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Signatures of giant planets formation in PP disks


Simulated observations of a PP disk with a giant exoplanet

1 [email protected] AU

d = 100 pc

Herbig Ae-type disk

ELT/METIS (2018 + ?)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Why "long-wavelength" data (>20 m) are also very important ?

 = 18.7 m

HD142527 Herbig star

VISIR image SiC (10.8 um)

PSF subtraction

1"

11.8 m

11.8 m

19 m

19 m

HD142527 Q2 PSF subtracted

Verhoeff et al., 2010, submitted

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


The MIRI disks imaging GTO sample

  • 10.6, 11.4, 15.5, 23 m coronagraphic imaging

  • 10 Herbig  / 14 T-Tauri  / 2 brown dwarves

  • A large sample of moderately inclined disks

  • A handful of almost edge-on disks ("disk tomography", direct imaging)

  • a selection of "transition disks" (last stages of planet formation ???)

  • Several star forming regions/evolutionary stages represented (Chameleon, Taurus-Aurigae, Scorpus, Ophiuchi

  • Good overlap/complementarity with the spectroscopic program

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Imaging of debris disks


NIRCAM imaging

residual wavefront error

(~ 200 "zodis")

 Pic-like disk @ 100 pc

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI imaging

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Complementary with existing/future facilities

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Conclusions

  • no major step in angular resolution capabilities (~ground)

  • not an exoplanets "hunter"

    but

  • amazing sensitivity (extended sources !) and stability: 103 gain factor

  • full set of space-born coronagraphic capabilities 2-25 m

  • JWST will characterizewide separation (5-100 AU) giant exoplanets (M>Ms) and discover new ones around faint (M) stars

  • spectroscopy of giant exoplanets R=10 R=3000

  • unique to detect/characterize thermal emission ( scattered emission) of disks

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Things the JWST cannot (or badly) do

  • faint stars (M!), no AO limitation

  • PSF subtraction

  • very long integrations

  • follow-ups

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Compared performances

JWST/MIRI

(see A.Glasse presentation)

  • very good sensitivity to point sources (~1 Jy at 10 m)

  • angular resolution (0.3" at 10 m) comparable to that of current 8m-class telescopes instruments (e.g. VISIR)

  • awesome sensitivity to extended emission (~1 Jy/"2 at 10 m)

ELT/METIS

(see M.Kissler-Patig presentation, B.Brandl poster)

  • good sensitivity to point sources and peaky structures (~25 Jy at 10 m)

  • excellent angular resolution (0.05"/10 m), direct imaging of planetary regions (r<30 AU) in closest disks (d<150 pc) will be achievable

  • very limited sensitivity (~10 mJy/"2, nul in some cases !) to extended emission

Same wavelength coverage, high level of complementary between extended source sensitivity/angular resolution

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


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