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Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST. E. Pantin , P.O. Lagage and the MIRI science team. SPITZER (IRAC, 8  m). JWST (MIRI, 7.7  m). Thermal Background. + FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines). NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters.

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Observations of proto planetary disks and exo planets with the jwst

Observations of proto-planetary disks and exo-planets with the JWST

E. Pantin, P.O. Lagage

and the MIRI science team



SPITZER (IRAC, 8 the JWST m)

JWST (MIRI, 7.7 m)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Thermal background
Thermal Background the JWST

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


+ FGS: Tunable Filter Instrument 1.5-5 um, R= 100, NRM (21 baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Nircam coronagraphic occulters
NIRCAM coronagraphic occulters baselines)

2 apodized WEDGES

3 apodized SPOTS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Miri fields of view coronagraphs
MIRI Fields of View, Coronagraphs baselines)

4QPM Coronagraphs

15.5µm

11.4µm

10.65µm

24 x 24 arcsec.

Imager

75 x 113 arcsec

Low Resolution Spectrometer

5 x 0.6 arcsec

Medium Resolution Spectrometer

> 3.5 x 3.5 arcsec

Lyot Mask 23mm

30” x 30”

F1550C or (F1550C+ F1140C) => Teff , CO2, clouds

F1065C + F1140C => Ammonia, clouds, T° probe

F0560W => water

F0770W => methane

All + modeling => some atmospheric parameters

Some degeneracies exist => combination with NIR is crucial

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Principle of 4QPM baselines)

(n-1)e =/2

IWA  /D  0.35"

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry





Sensitivity
Sensitivity baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Major points: baselines)

  • extreme sensitivity combined fairly good angular resolution ("a VISIR in space")

  • stability

  • JWST is not meant to discover new exoplanets but characterize already known ones

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo planets

Exo-planets baselines)


Exo planets imaging science case

Exo-planets baselines)imaging science case


Simulated coronagraphic images
Simulated coronagraphic images baselines)

NIRCAM:

M0 star

4 pc

2 Mj

7 AU

MIRI:

M2V star

10 pc

5, 10, 15 AU

1h integration

 = 11.4 m

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Rejection performance
Rejection performance baselines)

Beichman, 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Parameters space
Parameters space baselines)

NIRCAM/TFI/MIRI

M stars

GROUND-BASED IMAGING

Bright early-type stars

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



Jwst exoplanets imaging science case

JWST exoplanets imaging science case baselines)

A simulated targets sample for exoplanets detection


Simulated performances
Simulated performances baselines)

Sample program

Monte-Carlo ~700 stars)

1000 runs

d< ~150

age : 1 Myr- 1 Gyr

25 best (highest detection success rate)

1  dispersion, all stars

symbol sizes  fractional detection rate

Beichman et al., 2010

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Full sample
Full sample baselines)

MIRI

NIRCAM

TFI-NRM

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


M stars only
M stars only baselines)

old planets > Mj

young planets < Mj

NIRCAM

MIRI

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Giant planets formation mechanism around low mass stars the m stars niche for miri imager

Giant planets formation mechanism around low-mass stars: baselines)The M stars niche for MIRI imager


The adolescent m stars opportunity
The ("adolescent") M stars opportunity baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


The m stars opportunity
The M stars opportunity baselines)

  • 12 M0-M5 stars

  • d=10-40 pc

  • ages < 200 Myr

  • TW Hya (10 Myr)

  •  Pic mg (12 Myr)

  • Tucana-Horologium (30 Myr)

  • AB doradus (80 Myr)

  • Castor mg (200 Myr)

complementary NIRCAM and TFI observations are compulsory to assess the planetary nature of sources found !!

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



Exoplanets mid ir spectra
Exoplanets mid-IR spectra baselines)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Hot jupiter primary and secondary transits nircam nirspec
Hot Jupiter primary and secondary transits (NIRCAM, NIRspec)

HD209459 b

secondary transit

primary transit

t=6h

courtesy of J. Valenti

hot neptunes spectra (4 transits) are accessible using NIRCAM-NIRspec instruments

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo earths transit spectra nirspec mr
Exo-Earths transit spectra (NIRspec, MR)

NIRspec simulated spectrum of a (H2 rich) super-Earth exoplanet (GL581-like, M3, 6 pc, 20 transits)

Clampin, 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


MIRI

  • transit spectroscopy (probably not as performant as NIRCAM/NIRspec, TBC)

  • imaging (++)

  • spectral deconvolution using the MRS

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



The molten exo earths opportunity
The molten exo-Earths opportunity planets !

  • No atmosphere  100 000 yr cooling time

  • Atmosphere  1-10 Myr cooling time

Miller-ricci et al., 2009

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo rings
Exo-rings planets !

SECP rings can survive on Gyr-timescales !

Pantin et al., in prep

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Exo rings1
Exo-rings planets !

"Fomalhaut b-like" ring

Detection limit

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry




Spectroscopy of pp disks a key program for miri gto observations
Spectroscopy of PP disks : a key program for MIRI GTO observations

  • Full inventory of organic (pre-biotic) species :

  • NH3

  • C6H6

  • CH4

  • HCO+

  • HCN

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry




Goals
Goals observations

  • study:

  • large-scale geometry of the disks:

    • MIRI tremendous sensitivity allows to observe the disks up to very large distances from the star

    • for the first time, a large sample of T-Tauri disks are observable/resolvable in the mid-IR

  • disks (dust) vertical structure

    • dust settling

    • dust coagulation

    • disks stratification

  • search for forming/formed planets signature:

    • direct detection of forming protoplanet is highly unlikely (brightness [email protected] phase ?)

    • embedded massive bodies produce structures in disks:

      • gaps

      • bright rims

      • asymmetries

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Miri study of large scale structure of protoplanetary disks

MIRI study of Large Scale Structure of observationsProtoplanetary Disks


What do we observe in the mid ir range
What do we observe in the mid-IR range ? observations

~1 AU,10 mas

  • Mainly the thermal emission from heated dust grains

  • Mainly the inner rim (1500 K) that produces >90% of the total 10 m flux (continuum)

     coronagraphic mode is compulsory to avoid detector saturation (Fmax=20 mJy) and decrease photon noise

  • Once, the inner rim masked/subtracted, the thermal emission produced at the disks' surface (=1), on intermediate distance scales (3-100 AU)

  • PAH emission (7.7, 8.6, 11.3 m) on larger scales ( Rout)

~100 AU

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Large scale parameters
Large Scale Parameters observations

HD97048 8.6 m VLT/VISIR

(Lagage et al. 2006)

Star

measure:

  • scale height at a given distance

  • flaring parameter

  • dust sizes vs distance

  • dust composition vs distance

    indirect indications/constraints on:

  • gas content

  • turbulence (small grains)

  • surface density

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks in transition phase
Disks in "transition" phase observations

HD 95881 model sketch

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Continuum profiles
Continuum profiles observations

MIRI

MIRI

In the case of Herbig disks, the PAH emission (8.6, 11.3 m) is brighter and more extended than continuum emission

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Scattered mid ir emission
Scattered mid-IR emission observations

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



Disks appareance
Disks appareance observations

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Disks appareance as a probe of dust settling
Disks appareance as a probe of dust settling observations

PAH dominated spectrum

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



Simulated observations of a pp disk with a giant exoplanet
Simulated observations of a PP disk with a giant exoplanet observations

1 [email protected] AU

d = 100 pc

Herbig Ae-type disk

ELT/METIS (2018 + ?)

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Why long wavelength data 20 m are also very important
Why "long-wavelength" data ( observations>20 m) are also very important ?

 = 18.7 m

HD142527 Herbig star

VISIR image SiC (10.8 um)

PSF subtraction

1"

11.8 m

11.8 m

19 m

19 m

HD142527 Q2 PSF subtracted

Verhoeff et al., 2010, submitted

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


The miri disks imaging gto sample
The MIRI disks imaging GTO sample observations

  • 10.6, 11.4, 15.5, 23 m coronagraphic imaging

  • 10 Herbig  / 14 T-Tauri  / 2 brown dwarves

  • A large sample of moderately inclined disks

  • A handful of almost edge-on disks ("disk tomography", direct imaging)

  • a selection of "transition disks" (last stages of planet formation ???)

  • Several star forming regions/evolutionary stages represented (Chameleon, Taurus-Aurigae, Scorpus, Ophiuchi

  • Good overlap/complementarity with the spectroscopic program

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry



Nircam imaging
NIRCAM imaging observations

residual wavefront error

(~ 200 "zodis")

 Pic-like disk @ 100 pc

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Miri imaging
MIRI imaging observations

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Complementary with existing future facilities
Complementary with existing/future facilities observations

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Conclusions
Conclusions observations

  • no major step in angular resolution capabilities (~ground)

  • not an exoplanets "hunter"

    but

  • amazing sensitivity (extended sources !) and stability: 103 gain factor

  • full set of space-born coronagraphic capabilities 2-25 m

  • JWST will characterizewide separation (5-100 AU) giant exoplanets (M>Ms) and discover new ones around faint (M) stars

  • spectroscopy of giant exoplanets R=10 R=3000

  • unique to detect/characterize thermal emission ( scattered emission) of disks

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry





Things the jwst cannot or badly do
Things the JWST cannot (or badly) do observations

  • faint stars (M!), no AO limitation

  • PSF subtraction

  • very long integrations

  • follow-ups

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


Compared performances
Compared performances observations

JWST/MIRI

(see A.Glasse presentation)

  • very good sensitivity to point sources (~1 Jy at 10 m)

  • angular resolution (0.3" at 10 m) comparable to that of current 8m-class telescopes instruments (e.g. VISIR)

  • awesome sensitivity to extended emission (~1 Jy/"2 at 10 m)

ELT/METIS

(see M.Kissler-Patig presentation, B.Brandl poster)

  • good sensitivity to point sources and peaky structures (~25 Jy at 10 m)

  • excellent angular resolution (0.05"/10 m), direct imaging of planetary regions (r<30 AU) in closest disks (d<150 pc) will be achievable

  • very limited sensitivity (~10 mJy/"2, nul in some cases !) to extended emission

Same wavelength coverage, high level of complementary between extended source sensitivity/angular resolution

Disks and exoplanets : sciences cases for interferometry


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