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Cremation. MSU Extension MontGuide 200201 HR. Updated February 2013. Focus. Personal Concerns Montana & Federal Regulations Costs.

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MSU Extension MontGuide

200201 HR

Updated February 2013



  • Personal Concerns

  • Montana & Federal Regulations

  • Costs


Marsha A. GoettingProfessor & Extension Family Economics SpecialistCorinne CramerFormer Extension Family & Consumer Sciences Associate Claire DelGuerraFormer Cascade County Extension Agent

Historical info

Historical Info

  • First Crematory

    • 1876

    • Pennsylvania

Cremation acceptance

Cremation Acceptance

  • Montana—2009

    • 65% rate

    • 5,664 cremations out of 8,739 deaths



National rate

National Rate

  • Year 2009

    • 38%

Why choose cremation

Why Choose Cremation

  • National Survey

    • Cremation Association of North America

Why choose cremation1

Why Choose Cremation??

  • Save Money30%

  • Save Land13%

  • Simpler &More Convenient 8%

  • Personal Preference 6%

  • Body not in Earth 6%

Cremation Association of North America



  • Concerns for environment

  • Cold-weather constraints

  • Ease of transportation to distant burial sites

Who regulates

Who Regulates?

  • Montana Board of Funeral Service

    • Montana Department of Labor & Industry

Montana board of funeral service

Montana Board of Funeral Service

  • Administrative Rules

  • Standards

  • Licenses

Federal level

Federal Level

  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

    • Trade Regulation Rules

    • Itemized Price Info

Who can authorize the removal of my body to a crematory

Who can authorize the removal of my body to a crematory?

Removal of body

Removal of body?

  • Vital Statistics Bureau

    • DPHHS Form

    • “Authorization for Removal,Transportation, & Final Disposition of a Dead Body”

Signature of one

Signature of One:

  • Coroner

  • Mortician

  • Physician or Designee

  • Certified Advanced Practice Registered Nurse

Who submits the form

Who Submits the Form?

  • Mortician

    • With appropriate signatures

22 licensed crematories

22 Licensed Crematories

  • Billings, Bozeman, Butte, Great Falls, Hamilton, Helena, Kalispell, Livingston, Malta, Martinsdale, Miles City, Missoula, Polson, & Whitefish


What are the costs of cremation?

Comparison cost

Comparison Cost

  • Cremation

    • $1,000 - $3,000

    • Average cost $1,650

  • Funeral

    • $7,755

Cremation costs

Cremation Costs

  • Funeral Homes

    • Must provide disclosure form

      • Itemizing Expenses

Does my body have to be embalmed

Does my body have to be embalmed?

  • Not required unless certain funeral arrangements selected.

    • Private or public viewing

Casket required

Casket Required?

  • Not in Montana

    • Nationwide

      • 90% of cremations do not have casket

Montana requirements

Montana Requirements

  • Enclosed, rigid, leak proof container

    • Fiberboard

    • Pressed Wood

    • Cardboard

Ftc rules

FTC Rules

  • Must disclose in writing & make available:

    • Alternative container

    • Unfinished wooden box



  • Crematory must have written cremation authorization form

    • Signed by authorization agent

Authorizing agent

Authorizing Agent

  • Person legally entitled to determine final disposition of human remains

Priority order

Priority Order

  • Unless other directions provided by deceased

    • Spouse

    • Majority Adult Children (not all)

    • Parent

    • Close relative of deceased

In absence of family

In Absence of Family

  • Personal Representative

  • Public Administrator

  • Others as Designated by Montana Board of Funeral Service

List request

List Request

  • Prepaid funeral contract

  • Written disposition direction

  • Signed affidavit

  • Videotaped disposition

Further information

Further Information

  • What Are Your Rights Over Your Remains

    • Search by title



What is done with the body before cremation?

Personal possession

Personal Possession

  • Remove

    • Jewelry

    • Mementos



  • Remove

    • Could damage

    • Authorizing agent held responsible

Cremated with body

Cremated with body

  • Prostheses

  • Mechanical

    • Devices

    • Implants

Wait 24 hours

Wait 24 hours

  • Signed Death Certificate

  • Crematory Authorization

My ashes or others

My ashes or others?

  • Identifying metal disc attached to each receptacle containing a body

Identifying disc

Identifying Disc

  • During cremation disc secured on control panel outside the chamber

My ashes or others1

My ashes or others?

  • Number of identifying metal disc written on outside of receptacle


Which survivors are ashes given to

Which survivors are ashes given to?

  • Individual specified by authorizing agent on cremation authorization form

No authorizing agent

No Authorizing Agent

  • After 90 days:

    • Crematory has the authority for disposition of remains

What should family do with ashes

What should family do with ashes?



  • Put my ashes in an envelope and mail them to IRS. Write on envelope…”








  • Hardwood

  • Stone or Marble

  • Bronze, copper, or other metals

  • Biodegradable

Urn burial

Urn Burial

  • Columbarium niche

Urn burial1

Urn Burial

  • Urn Garden

Keepsake memorial

Keepsake Memorial

  • Jewelry

    • Pendant

    • Ring

Keepsake memorial1

Keepsake Memorial

  • Miniature Cast

    • Bronze Urn

What to do with ashes

What to do with ashes?

  • Bury

  • Scatter

Scattering where


  • 30% water

  • 29% land

  • 18% preference of deceased



  • 59% preferred to be scattered rather than buried

Where to scatter

Where to Scatter?

  • Privately owned lands

Church owned lands

Church-Owned Lands

  • Ask Permission

City lands parks lakes

City Lands, Parks, & Lakes

  • City Attorney

  • City Commissioner

    • Permission?

    • Forms?

County lands parks lakes

County Lands, Parks, & Lakes

  • County Attorney

  • County Commissioner

    • Permission?

    • Forms?

School trust lands

School Trust Lands

  • Montana Department of Natural Resources & Conservation (DNRC)

School trust lands1

School Trust Lands

  • Sections 16 & 36 Township

  • Land use permit ($25)

  • Area Office fee (varies)

State rivers lakes

State Rivers & Lakes

  • Montana Department of Environmental Quality

    • No permit required

State lands parks

State Lands & Parks

  • Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    • Not allow unless authorized by commissioner

Tribal trust lands

Tribal Trust Lands

  • 7 reservations in Montana

    • Tribal Community Council

    • General Council

Bureau of land management lands

Bureau of Land Management Lands

  • No federal permits are necessary

    • Unless commercial enterprises

Federal waters

Federal Waters

  • At sea

    • 3 nautical miles

    • Burial/Scatter at Sea Notification Form


National cemeteries

National Cemeteries

  • Veterans

    • Spouses

    • Dependent children



  • List from:

  • VA Medical & Regional Office Center

    • Fort Harrison, MT

    • 877-468-8387

National forests

National Forests

  • Forest Service

    • No rules or regulations

      • Except for California

National parks

National Parks

  • Each national park has conditions for granting permission

  • Contact

    • Superintendent of Park


Yellowstone national park

Yellowstone National Park

  • Special Use Permit--$25

    • Yellowstone Visitor Service Office

Glacier national park

Glacier National Park

  • Undeveloped areas

    • Notify Special Park Uses Office

      • 406-888-7800



  • Federal Aviation Administration

    • As long as no hazard to persons or property

      • 866-835-5322

Hub wheelman s daughter

Hub Wheelman’s Daughter

  • “I keep a small vial of his ashes in my glove compartment. I am nowhere near the driver he was, but at least he’s still spending a fair amount of time on the road.”

Hot air balloonist

Hot Air Balloonist

  • “….released my wife’s ashes from her balloon high in the desert where she broke the world’s record…I think she is smiling.”

Can i have my ashes mailed

Can I have my ashes mailed?

Shipping montana


  • U.S. Postal Service

    • Only by Registered Mail

      • Return Receipt Services

Ship out of state

Ship-Out of State

  • Include:

    • Copy of cremation authorization form

Shipping container

Shipping Container

  • Sift-proof

  • Sealed

  • Durable

No shipment of cremated remains

No shipment of cremated remains

  • United Parcel Service

  • Federal Express

Prefer cremation

Prefer Cremation?

  • Place request in writing

    • Preneed Authorization

Funeral director

Funeral Director

  • “When planning to honor and memorialize a person who has died, the family should plan a funeral, memorial, celebration of life or gathering that best suits their religious beliefs, traditions, lifestyle & budget.”



  • Montana Board of Funeral Service

  • Montana Funeral Directors Association

Montana department of

Montana Department of

  • Public Health & Human Services

  • Environmental Quality

  • Fish, Wildlife & Parks

Further info p 6

Further Info p. 6

  • Montana Board of Funeral Service


Further info

Further Info

  • Montana Funeral Directors Association

  • Local Funeral Home


National info

National Info

  • AARP


  • Cremation Association of North America (CANA)


National info1

National Info

  • Funeral Consumers Alliance (FCA)


  • Funeral Service Educational Foundation (FSEF)


National info2

National Info

  • International Crematory & Funeral Association


  • National Funeral Directors Association (NFDA)


  • Selected Independent Funeral Homes (SIFH)


Definitions of terms in cremation industry at the end of montguide

Definitions of Terms in Cremation Industry At the end of MontGuide



MSU Extension MontGuide

200201 HR

Updated February 2013

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